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A spark of static electricity, such as that you might receive from a doorknob on a cold dry day, may carry a few hundred watts of power. Explain why you are not injured by such a spark.


The Crab Nebula (see [link] ) pulsar is the remnant of a supernova that occurred in A.D. 1054. Using data from [link] , calculate the approximate factor by which the power output of this astronomical object has declined since its explosion.

A supernova explosion.
Crab Nebula (credit: ESO, via Wikimedia Commons)
2 × 10 10 size 12{2 times "10" rSup { size 8{-"10"} } } {}

Suppose a star 1000 times brighter than our Sun (that is, emitting 1000 times the power) suddenly goes supernova. Using data from [link] : (a) By what factor does its power output increase? (b) How many times brighter than our entire Milky Way galaxy is the supernova? (c) Based on your answers, discuss whether it should be possible to observe supernovas in distant galaxies. Note that there are on the order of 10 11 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } } {} observable galaxies, the average brightness of which is somewhat less than our own galaxy.

A person in good physical condition can put out 100 W of useful power for several hours at a stretch, perhaps by pedaling a mechanism that drives an electric generator. Neglecting any problems of generator efficiency and practical considerations such as resting time: (a) How many people would it take to run a 4.00-kW electric clothes dryer? (b) How many people would it take to replace a large electric power plant that generates 800 MW?

(a) 40

(b) 8 million

What is the cost of operating a 3.00-W electric clock for a year if the cost of electricity is $0.0900 per kW h size 12{"kW" cdot h} {} ?

A large household air conditioner may consume 15.0 kW of power. What is the cost of operating this air conditioner 3.00 h per day for 30.0 d if the cost of electricity is $0.110 per kW h size 12{"kW" cdot h} {} ?


(a) What is the average power consumption in watts of an appliance that uses 5 . 00 kW h size 12{5 "." "00 kW" cdot h} {} of energy per day? (b) How many joules of energy does this appliance consume in a year?

(a) What is the average useful power output of a person who does 6 . 00 × 10 6 J size 12{6 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {} of useful work in 8.00 h? (b) Working at this rate, how long will it take this person to lift 2000 kg of bricks 1.50 m to a platform? (Work done to lift his body can be omitted because it is not considered useful output here.)

(a) 208 W

(b) 141 s

A 500-kg dragster accelerates from rest to a final speed of 110 m/s in 400 m (about a quarter of a mile) and encounters an average frictional force of 1200 N. What is its average power output in watts and horsepower if this takes 7.30 s?

(a) How long will it take an 850-kg car with a useful power output of 40.0 hp (1 hp = 746 W) to reach a speed of 15.0 m/s, neglecting friction? (b) How long will this acceleration take if the car also climbs a 3.00-m-high hill in the process?

(a) 3.20 s

(b) 4.04 s

(a) Find the useful power output of an elevator motor that lifts a 2500-kg load a height of 35.0 m in 12.0 s, if it also increases the speed from rest to 4.00 m/s. Note that the total mass of the counterbalanced system is 10,000 kg—so that only 2500 kg is raised in height, but the full 10,000 kg is accelerated. (b) What does it cost, if electricity is $0.0900 per kW h size 12{"kW" cdot h} {} ?

(a) What is the available energy content, in joules, of a battery that operates a 2.00-W electric clock for 18 months? (b) How long can a battery that can supply 8 . 00 × 10 4 J size 12{8 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " J"} {} run a pocket calculator that consumes energy at the rate of 1 . 00 × 10 3 W size 12{1 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{-3} } " W"} {} ?

(a) 9 . 46 × 10 7 J size 12{9 "." "46" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " J"} {}

(b) 2 . 54 y size 12{2 "." "54" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " J"} {}

(a) How long would it take a 1 . 50 × 10 5 size 12{1 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } } {} -kg airplane with engines that produce 100 MW of power to reach a speed of 250 m/s and an altitude of 12.0 km if air resistance were negligible? (b) If it actually takes 900 s, what is the power? (c) Given this power, what is the average force of air resistance if the airplane takes 1200 s? (Hint: You must find the distance the plane travels in 1200 s assuming constant acceleration.)

Calculate the power output needed for a 950-kg car to climb a 2.00º slope at a constant 30.0 m/s while encountering wind resistance and friction totaling 600 N. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Energy .

Identify knowns: m = 950 kg size 12{m="950"`"kg"} {} , slope angle θ = 2.00º , v = 3.00 m/s , f = 600 N size 12{f="600"`N} {}

Identify unknowns: power P size 12{P} {} of the car, force F size 12{F} {} that car applies to road

Solve for unknown:

P = W t = Fd t = F d t = Fv , size 12{P= { {W} over {t} } = { { ital "Fd"} over {t} } =F left ( { {d} over {t} } right )= ital "Fv",} {}

where F size 12{F} {} is parallel to the incline and must oppose the resistive forces and the force of gravity:

F = f + w = 600 N + mg sin θ size 12{F=f+w="600 N"+ ital "mg""sin"θ} {}

Insert this into the expression for power and solve:

P = f + mg sin θ v = 600 N + 950 kg 9.80 m/s 2 sin 2º ( 30.0 m/s ) = 2.77 × 10 4 W alignl { stack { size 12{P= left (f+ ital "mg""sin"θ right )v} {} #size 12{ {}= left ["600 N"+ left ("950 kg" right ) left (9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right )"sin2"° right ] \( "30" "." "0 m/s" \) } {} #=2 "." "77" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `W {} } } {}

About 28 kW (or about 37 hp) is reasonable for a car to climb a gentle incline.

(a) Calculate the power per square meter reaching Earth’s upper atmosphere from the Sun. (Take the power output of the Sun to be 4 . 00 × 10 26 W . ) (b) Part of this is absorbed and reflected by the atmosphere, so that a maximum of 1 . 30 kW/m 2 reaches Earth’s surface. Calculate the area in km 2 of solar energy collectors needed to replace an electric power plant that generates 750 MW if the collectors convert an average of 2.00% of the maximum power into electricity. (This small conversion efficiency is due to the devices themselves, and the fact that the sun is directly overhead only briefly.) With the same assumptions, what area would be needed to meet the United States’ energy needs ( 1 . 05 × 10 20 J ) ? size 12{ \( 1 "." "05" times "10" rSup { size 8{"20"} } " J" \) ?} {} Australia’s energy needs ( 5 . 4 × 10 18 J)? size 12{ \( 5 "." 4 times "10" rSup { size 8{"18"} } " J" \) ?} {} China’s energy needs ( 6 . 3 × 10 19 J)? size 12{ \( 6 "." 3 times "10" rSup { size 8{"19"} } " J" \) ?} {} (These energy consumption values are from 2006.)

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics arranged for cpslo phys141. OpenStax CNX. Dec 23, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11718/1.4
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