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Conceptual questions

More force is required to pull the plug in a full bathtub than when it is empty. Does this contradict Archimedes’ principle? Explain your answer.

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Do fluids exert buoyant forces in a “weightless” environment, such as in the space shuttle? Explain your answer.

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Will the same ship float higher in salt water than in freshwater? Explain your answer.

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Marbles dropped into a partially filled bathtub sink to the bottom. Part of their weight is supported by buoyant force, yet the downward force on the bottom of the tub increases by exactly the weight of the marbles. Explain why.

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Problem exercises

What fraction of ice is submerged when it floats in freshwater, given the density of water at 0°C is very close to 1000 kg /m 3 size 12{"1000"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

91 . 7% size 12{"91" "." 7%} {}

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Logs sometimes float vertically in a lake because one end has become water-logged and denser than the other. What is the average density of a uniform-diameter log that floats with 20.0% of its length above water?

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Find the density of a fluid in which a hydrometer having a density of 0 . 750 g /mL size 12{0 "." "750"`"g/mL"} {} floats with 92.0% size 12{"92" "." 0%} {} of its volume submerged.

815 kg /m 3 size 12{"815"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

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If your body has a density of 995 kg /m 3 size 12{"995"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} , what fraction of you will be submerged when floating gently in: (a) Freshwater? (b) Salt water, which has a density of 1027 kg /m 3 size 12{"1027"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

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Bird bones have air pockets in them to reduce their weight—this also gives them an average density significantly less than that of the bones of other animals. Suppose an ornithologist weighs a bird bone in air and in water and finds its mass is 45.0 g and its apparent mass when submerged is 3.60 g size 12{3 "." "60"`g} {} (the bone is watertight). (a) What mass of water is displaced? (b) What is the volume of the bone? (c) What is its average density?

(a) 41.4 g

(b) 41 . 4 cm 3 size 12{"41" "." 4`"cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

(c) 1 . 09 g /cm 3 size 12{1 "." "09"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

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A rock with a mass of 540 g in air is found to have an apparent mass of 342 g when submerged in water. (a) What mass of water is displaced? (b) What is the volume of the rock? (c) What is its average density? Is this consistent with the value for granite?

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Archimedes’ principle can be used to calculate the density of a fluid as well as that of a solid. Suppose a chunk of iron with a mass of 390.0 g in air is found to have an apparent mass of 350.5 g when completely submerged in an unknown liquid. (a) What mass of fluid does the iron displace? (b) What is the volume of iron, using its density as given in [link] (c) Calculate the fluid’s density and identify it.

(a) 39.5 g

(b) 50 cm 3 size 12{"50"`"cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

(c) 0 . 79 g/cm 3 size 12{0 "." "79"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

It is ethyl alcohol.

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In an immersion measurement of a woman’s density, she is found to have a mass of 62.0 kg in air and an apparent mass of 0.0850 kg when completely submerged with lungs empty. (a) What mass of water does she displace? (b) What is her volume? (c) Calculate her density. (d) If her lung capacity is 1.75 L, is she able to float without treading water with her lungs filled with air?

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Some fish have a density slightly less than that of water and must exert a force (swim) to stay submerged. What force must an 85.0-kg grouper exert to stay submerged in salt water if its body density is 1015 kg/m 3 size 12{"1015" `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

8.21 N

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(a) Calculate the buoyant force on a 2.00-L helium balloon. (b) Given the mass of the rubber in the balloon is 1.50 g, what is the net vertical force on the balloon if it is let go? You can neglect the volume of the rubber.

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(a) What is the density of a woman who floats in freshwater with 4.00% of her volume above the surface? This could be measured by placing her in a tank with marks on the side to measure how much water she displaces when floating and when held under water (briefly). (b) What percent of her volume is above the surface when she floats in seawater?

(a) 960 kg/m 3 size 12{"960" `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}

(b) 6.34%

She indeed floats more in seawater.

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A certain man has a mass of 80 kg and a density of 955 kg/m 3 size 12{"955" `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} (excluding the air in his lungs). (a) Calculate his volume. (b) Find the buoyant force air exerts on him. (c) What is the ratio of the buoyant force to his weight?

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A simple compass can be made by placing a small bar magnet on a cork floating in water. (a) What fraction of a plain cork will be submerged when floating in water? (b) If the cork has a mass of 10.0 g and a 20.0-g magnet is placed on it, what fraction of the cork will be submerged? (c) Will the bar magnet and cork float in ethyl alcohol?

(a) 0 . 24 size 12{0 "." "24"} {}

(b) 0 . 68 size 12{0 "." "68"} {}

(c) Yes, the cork will float because ρ obj < ρ ethyl alcohol ( 0 . 678 g/cm 3 < 0 . 79 g/cm 3 ) size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{"obj"} }<ρ rSub { size 8{"ethyl"`"alcohol"} } \( 0 "." "678"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} }<0 "." "79"`"g/cm" rSup { size 8{3} } \) } {}

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What fraction of an iron anchor’s weight will be supported by buoyant force when submerged in saltwater?

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Scurrilous con artists have been known to represent gold-plated tungsten ingots as pure gold and sell them to the greedy at prices much below gold value but deservedly far above the cost of tungsten. With what accuracy must you be able to measure the mass of such an ingot in and out of water to tell that it is almost pure tungsten rather than pure gold?

The difference is 0.006%.

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A twin-sized air mattress used for camping has dimensions of 100 cm by 200 cm by 15 cm when blown up. The weight of the mattress is 2 kg. How heavy a person could the air mattress hold if it is placed in freshwater?

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Referring to [link] , prove that the buoyant force on the cylinder is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced (Archimedes’ principle). You may assume that the buoyant force is F 2 F 1 size 12{F rSub { size 8{2} } - F rSub { size 8{1} } } {} and that the ends of the cylinder have equal areas A size 12{A} {} . Note that the volume of the cylinder (and that of the fluid it displaces) equals ( h 2 h 1 ) A size 12{ \( h rSub { size 8{2} } - h rSub { size 8{1} } \) A} {} .

F net = F 2 F 1 = P 2 A P 1 A = P 2 P 1 A size 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } =F rSub { size 8{2} } - F rSub { size 8{1} } =P rSub { size 8{2} } A - P rSub { size 8{1} } A= left (P rSub { size 8{2} } - P rSub { size 8{1} } right )A} {}

= h 2 ρ fl g h 1 ρ fl g A size 12{ {}= left (h rSub { size 8{2} } ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g - h rSub { size 8{1} } ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g right )A} {}

= h 2 h 1 ρ fl gA size 12{ {}= left (h rSub { size 8{2} } - h rSub { size 8{1} } right )ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } ital "gA"} {}

where ρ fl size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} = density of fluid. Therefore,

F net = ( h 2 h 1 ) fl g = V fl ρ fl g = m fl g = w fl size 12{F rSub { size 8{"net"} } = \( h rSub { size 8{2} } - h rSub { size 8{1} } \) Aρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g=V rSub { size 8{"fl"} } ρ rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g=m rSub { size 8{"fl"} } g=w rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {}

where is w fl size 12{w rSub { size 8{"fl"} } } {} the weight of the fluid displaced.

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(a) A 75.0-kg man floats in freshwater with 3.00% of his volume above water when his lungs are empty, and 5.00% of his volume above water when his lungs are full. Calculate the volume of air he inhales—called his lung capacity—in liters. (b) Does this lung volume seem reasonable?

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Questions & Answers

what is temperature
Adeleye Reply
temperature is the measure of degree of hotness or coldness of a body. measured in kelvin
Ahmad
a characteristic which tells hotness or coldness of a body
babar
Average kinetic energy of an object
Kym
average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Kym
A measure of the quantity of heat contained in an object which arises from the average kinetic energy of the constituent particles of that object. It can be measured using thermometers. It has a unit of kelvin in the thermodynamic scale and degree Celsius in the Celsius scale.
ibrahim
Mass of air bubble in material medium is negative. why?
Hrithik Reply
a car move 6m. what is the acceleration?
Umaru Reply
depends how long
Peter
What is the simplest explanation on the difference of principle, law and a theory
Kym Reply
how did the value of gravitational constant came give me the explanation
Varun Reply
how did the value of gravitational constant 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg-2
Varun
A steel ball is dropped onto a hard floor from a height of 1.50 m and rebounds to a height of 1.45 m. (a) Calculate its velocity just before it strikes the floor.
Kris Reply
9.8m/s?
Muhammad
Sqrt(2*1.5m*9.81m/s^2)
Richard
0.5m* mate.
Muhammad
0.05 I meant.
Muhammad
Guess your solution is correct considering the ball fall from 1.5m height initially.
Muhammad
Sqrt(2*1.5m*9.81m/s^2)
Deepak
How can we compare different combinations of capacitors?
Prakash Reply
find the dimension of acceleration if it's unit is ms-2
Happiness Reply
lt^-2
Ahmad
b=-2 ,a =1
Ahmad
M^0 L^1T^-2
Sneha
what is botany
Masha
it is a branch of science which deal with the study of plants animals and environment
Varun
what is work
Sunday Reply
a boy moving with an initial velocity of 2m\s and finally canes to rest with a velocity of 3m\s square at times 10se calculate it acceleration
Sunday
.
Abdul
6.6 lol 😁😁
Abdul
show ur work
Sunday
sorry..the answer is -10
Abdul
your question is wrong
Abdul
If the boy is coming to rest then how the hell will his final velocity be 3 it'll be zero
Abdul
re-write the question
Nicolas
men i -10 isn't correct.
Stephen
using v=u + at
Stephen
1/10
Happy
ya..1/10 is very correct..
Stephen
hnn
Happy
how did the value 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg2 came tell me please
Varun
Work is the product of force and distance
Kym
physicist
Michael
what is longitudinal wave
Badmus Reply
A longitudinal wave is wave which moves parallel or along the direction of propagation.
sahil
longitudinal wave in liquid is square root of bulk of modulus by density of liquid
harishree
Is British mathematical units the same as the United States units?(like inches, cm, ext.)
Nina Reply
We use SI units: kg, m etc but the US sometimes refer to inches etc as British units even though we no longer use them.
Richard
Thanks, just what I needed to know.
Nina
What is the advantage of a diffraction grating over a double slit in dispersing light into a spectrum?
Uditha Reply
can I ask questions?
Boniface Reply
yes.
Abdul
Yes
Albert
sure
Ajali
yeap
Sani
yesssss
bilal
hello guys
Ibitayo
when you will ask the question
Ana
anybody can ask here
bichu
is free energy possible with magnets?
joel
no
Mr.
you could construct an aparatus that might have a slightly higher 'energy profit' than energy used, but you would havw to maintain the machine, and most likely keep it in a vacuum, for no air resistance, and cool it, so chances are quite slim.
Mr.
calculate the force, p, required to just make a 6kg object move along the horizontal surface where the coefficient of friction is 0.25
Gbolahan
Yes ask
Albert
if a man travel 7km 30degree east of North then 10km east find the resultant displacement
Ajali Reply
11km
Dohn
disagree. Displacement is the hypotenuse length of the final position to the starting position. Find x,y components of each leg of journey to determine final position, then use final components to calculate the displacement.
Daniel
1.The giant star Betelgeuse emits radiant energy at a rate of 10exponent4 times greater than our sun, where as it surface temperature is only half (2900k) that of our sun. Estimate the radius of Betelgeuse assuming e=1, the sun's radius is s=7*10exponent8metres
James Reply
2. A ceramic teapot (e=0.20) and a shiny one (e=0.10), each hold 0.25 l of at 95degrees. A. Estimate the temperature rate of heat loss from each B. Estimate the temperature drop after 30mins for each. Consider only radiation and assume the surrounding at 20degrees
James
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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