# 11.9 Pressures in the body

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• Explain the concept of pressure the in human body.
• Explain systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
• Describe pressures in the eye, lungs, spinal column, bladder, and skeletal system.

## Pressure in the body

Next to taking a person’s temperature and weight, measuring blood pressure is the most common of all medical examinations. Control of high blood pressure is largely responsible for the significant decreases in heart attack and stroke fatalities achieved in the last three decades. The pressures in various parts of the body can be measured and often provide valuable medical indicators. In this section, we consider a few examples together with some of the physics that accompanies them.

[link] lists some of the measured pressures in mm Hg, the units most commonly quoted.

Typical pressures in humans
Body system Gauge pressure in mm Hg
Blood pressures in large arteries (resting)
Maximum (systolic) 100–140
Minimum (diastolic) 60–90
Blood pressure in large veins 4–15
Eye 12–24
Brain and spinal fluid (lying down) 5–12
While filling 0–25
When full 100–150
Chest cavity between lungs and ribs −8 to −4
Inside lungs −2 to +3
Digestive tract
Esophagus −2
Stomach 0–20
Intestines 10–20
Middle ear <1

## Blood pressure

Common arterial blood pressure measurements typically produce values of 120 mm Hg and 80 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic and diastolic pressures. Both pressures have health implications. When systolic pressure is chronically high, the risk of stroke and heart attack is increased. If, however, it is too low, fainting is a problem. Systolic pressure increases dramatically during exercise to increase blood flow and returns to normal afterward. This change produces no ill effects and, in fact, may be beneficial to the tone of the circulatory system. Diastolic pressure can be an indicator of fluid balance. When low, it may indicate that a person is hemorrhaging internally and needs a transfusion. Conversely, high diastolic pressure indicates a ballooning of the blood vessels, which may be due to the transfusion of too much fluid into the circulatory system. High diastolic pressure is also an indication that blood vessels are not dilating properly to pass blood through. This can seriously strain the heart in its attempt to pump blood.

Blood leaves the heart at about 120 mm Hg but its pressure continues to decrease (to almost 0) as it goes from the aorta to smaller arteries to small veins (see [link] ). The pressure differences in the circulation system are caused by blood flow through the system as well as the position of the person. For a person standing up, the pressure in the feet will be larger than at the heart due to the weight of the blood $\left(P=\mathrm{h\rho g}\right)$ . If we assume that the distance between the heart and the feet of a person in an upright position is 1.4 m, then the increase in pressure in the feet relative to that in the heart (for a static column of blood) is given by

$\Delta P=\Delta \mathrm{h\rho g}=\left(1.4 m\right)\left(\text{1050 kg}{\text{/m}}^{3}\right)\left(9.80 m{\text{/s}}^{2}\right)=1\text{.}4×{\text{10}}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{Pa}=\text{108 mm Hg}.$

## Increase in pressure in the feet of a person

$\Delta P=\Delta \mathrm{h\rho g}=\left(1.4 m\right)\left(\text{1050 kg}{\text{/m}}^{3}\right)\left(9.80 m{\text{/s}}^{2}\right)=1\text{.}4×{\text{10}}^{4}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{Pa}=\text{108 mm Hg}.$

what is the formula of displacement
d=vt displacement= velocity×time
bilal
can some one tell me how v=RW is dimensionally correct?
ms-1 = m X Hz
babar
What is displacement
shortest distance b/w two points
bilal
distance+direction
A.d
explain distanace+direction
bilal
the change of postion from one point to another with direction
A.d
if we change thrle direction then displacement is destroy?
bilal
change the direction then?
bilal
what do u mean by i didnt understand bro
A.d
displacement is one dimension...?
bilal
displacement is the total length an object cover from initial to the final with respect to direction as Well as time.
mohammed
thanks
bilal
displacement is the ratio of speed with respect to particular time
Bhautik
shortest distance travel from initial point to final point
ankit
is straight shortest line that connect initial pt with final pt.
Zeleke
what are the differences between vector and scalar quantity
vector is assigned to those physical quantity that has both direction and magnitude! example velocity ,scalar just has magnitude example Mass of an object. hope it helps
Mudang
velocity is produce in fan...?
how many electrons are there in 5 microcouloumb
can a given total amount of mechanical energy be totally converted into heat energy..if so give example
human running
Emmanuel
what is the fumula for calculating specific heat capacity, fusion,fission and vaporization?
Q=cm(∆t)
Emmanuel
Q=cm∆T
what is difference b/w vaporization and evaporation
evaporation is the process of extracting moisture while vaporization is process of becoming a vapor or gas
Emmanuel
From a molecular standpoint they are both cooling processes. Also, you may want to explore states of matter😊 #myTwoCents ~Shi~
Shii
cooling is a similarlity in both process I am confused in difference
1- Evaporation is a process where a liquid change to gas without reaching its boiling point. 2- Vaporization is a process where a liquid change to gas after reaching its boiling point. 3- Sublimation is a process where a solid changes into vapour without passing through a liquid state
Victor
I see. Evaporation is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point. hope that aids
Shii
vaporisation is cooling process while vaporization is heating process
Emmanuel
I mean to write evaporation is an heating process while vaporization is cooling process
Emmanuel
Yea here are two applications. 1- your wet washed clothes dry under the sun, the water EVAPORATES 2- when u are cooking, it reaches a point where u need to add more water because the water you added previously is getting dried. this is VAPORIZATION. Am not sure which is a cooling or heating process
Victor
vaporization occur only when the evaporation get to level where the above cloud is been (saturated) so cooling take place and started to change to liquid (eg rain fall)
Emmanuel
They are both properties of the same process so they're both cooling
Shii
what about sublimation? cooling or heating process?
Victor
exact
evaporation is the increase in kinetic energy of the liquid which can be gone by adding heat
Emmanuel
so its an heating process
Emmanuel
sublimation is when a solid change to gas
Emmanuel
evaporation is very definitely a cooling process. respectfully@Emmanuel when liquid turns to gas it requires more energy from its surroundings, this energy is in the form of heat, and when heat energy leaves the evaporating liquid it leaves it cooler. Thus, cooling process.
Shii
.
Shii
evaporation is very definitely a cooling process. respectfully@Emmanuel
Shii
kk
Emmanuel
You're right @Shi. I get your point
Victor
eascape velocity on the surface of Earth is 11.2 kms-1 the escape velocity on the surface of another planet of same mass as that of Earth but of 1/4 times of radius of Earth is a5.6kms-1 b11.2 kms-1 c22.4kms-1 d5.6ms-1
Emm.. is that a question? or..
Victor
it is McQ
a)5.6km/s
Alvis
c= Q/cm◇T
A.d
units...
Shii
vital
Shii
the time period of the artificial satellite is given by ?
raza
Why is there no 2nd harmonic in the classical electron orbit?
how to reform magnet after been demagneted
A petrol engine has a output of 20 kilowatts and uses 4.5 kg of fuel for each hour of running. The energy given out when 1 kg of petrol is burnt is 4.8 × 10 to the power of 7 Joules. a) What is the energy output of the engine every hour? b) What is the energy input of the engine every hour?
Issac Newton devised a genius way to calculate changing quantities...
Shii
what is the error during taking work done of a body..
what kind of error do you think? and work is held by which force?
Daniela
I am now in this group
smart
theory,laws,principles and what-a-view are not defined. why? you
A simple pendulum is used in a physics laboratory experiment to obtain an experimental value for the gravitational acceleration, g . A student measures the length of the pendulum to be 0.510 meters, displaces it 10 o from the equilibrium position, and releases it. Using a s
so what question are you passing across... sir?
Olalekan
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed?
54 joule
babar
how?
rakesh
Reduce that two body problem into one body problem. Apply potential and k. E formula to get total energy of the system
rakesh
i dont think dere is any potential energy... by d virtue of no height present
Olalekan
there is compressed energy,dats only potential energy na?
rakesh
yes.. but... how will u approach that question without The Height in the question?
Olalekan
Can you explain how you get 54J?
Emmanuel
Because mine is 36J
Emmanuel
got 36J too
Douglas
OK the answer is 54J Babar is correct
Emmanuel
Conservation of Momentum
Emmanuel
woow i see.. can you give the formula for this
joshua