Problem-solving strategies for the methods of heat transfer
Examine the situation to determine what type of heat transfer is involved.
Identify the type(s) of heat transfer—conduction, convection, or radiation.
Identify exactly what needs to be determined in the problem (identify the unknowns). A written list is very useful.
Make a list of what is given or can be inferred from the problem as stated (identify the knowns).
Solve the appropriate equation for the quantity to be determined (the unknown).
For conduction, equation
$\frac{Q}{t}=\frac{\text{kA}({T}_{2}-{T}_{1})}{d}$ is appropriate.
[link] lists thermal conductivities. For convection, determine the amount of matter moved and use equation
$Q=\text{mc}\text{\Delta}T$ , to calculate the heat transfer involved in the temperature change of the fluid. If a phase change accompanies convection, equation
$Q={\text{mL}}_{\text{f}}$ or
$Q={\text{mL}}_{\text{v}}$ is appropriate to find the heat transfer involved in the phase change.
[link] lists information relevant to phase change. For radiation, equation
$\frac{{Q}_{\text{net}}}{t}=\sigma eA\left({T}_{2}^{4}-{T}_{1}^{4}\right)$ gives the net heat transfer rate.
Insert the knowns along with their units into the appropriate equation and obtain numerical solutions complete with units.
Check the answer to see if it is reasonable. Does it make sense?
Summary
Radiation is the rate of heat transfer through the emission or absorption of electromagnetic waves.
The rate of heat transfer depends on the surface area and the fourth power of the absolute temperature:
$\frac{Q}{t}=\sigma eA{T}^{4}\text{,}$
where
$\sigma =5\text{.67}\times {\text{10}}^{-8}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J/s}\cdot {\text{m}}^{2}\cdot {\text{K}}^{4}$ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and
$e$ is the emissivity of the body. For a black body,
$e=1$ whereas a shiny white or perfect reflector has
$e=0$ , with real objects having values of
$e$ between 1 and 0. The net rate of heat transfer by radiation is
where
${T}_{1}$ is the temperature of an object surrounded by an environment with uniform temperature
${T}_{2}$ and
$e$ is the emissivity of the
object .
Conceptual questions
When watching a daytime circus in a large, dark-colored tent, you sense significant heat transfer from the tent. Explain why this occurs.
Satellites designed to observe the radiation from cold (3 K) dark space have sensors that are shaded from the Sun, Earth, and Moon and that are cooled to very low temperatures. Why must the sensors be at low temperature?
Why are thermometers that are used in weather stations shielded from the sunshine? What does a thermometer measure if it is shielded from the sunshine and also if it is not?
At what net rate does heat radiate from a
$\text{275}{\text{-m}}^{2}$ black roof on a night when the roof’s temperature is
$\text{30.}\mathrm{0\xba}\text{C}$ and the surrounding temperature is
$\text{15.}\mathrm{0\xba}\text{C}$ ? The emissivity of the roof is 0.900.
$-\text{21}\text{.}7\text{kW}$ Note that the negative answer implies heat loss to the surroundings.
(a) Cherry-red embers in a fireplace are at
$\text{850\xba}\text{C}$ and have an exposed area of
$0\text{.}\text{200}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}$ and an emissivity of 0.980. The surrounding room has a temperature of
$\text{18}\text{.}\mathrm{0\xba}\text{C}$ . If 50% of the radiant energy enters the room, what is the net rate of radiant heat transfer in kilowatts? (b) Does your answer support the contention that most of the heat transfer into a room by a fireplace comes from infrared radiation?
Find the following for path D in [link] : (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.
A bottle full of water weighs 45g when full of mercury,it weighs 360g.if the empty bottle weighs 20g.calculate the relative density of mercury and the density of mercury....pls I need help
well You know the density of water is 1000kg/m^3.And formula for density is
density=mass/volume
Then we must calculate volume of bottle and mass of mercury:
Volume of bottle is (45-20)/1000000=1/40000
mass of mercury is:(360-20)/1000 kg
density of mercury:(340/1000):1/50000=(340•40000):1000=13600
Sobirjon
the latter is true
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture...take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid 1.2g/cm3
Lila
plz hu can explain Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
how to solve this... a car is heading north then smoothly made a westward turn during the travel the speed of the car remains constant at 1.5km/h what is the acceleration of the car? the total travel time of the car as it smoothly changed its direction is 15 minutes
Vann
i think the acceleration is 0 since the car does not change its speed unless there are other conditions
Ben
yes I have to agree, the key phrase is, "the speed of the car remains constant...," all other information is not needed to conclude that acceleration remains at 0 during the entire time
Luis
who can help me with a relative density question
Lila
1cm3 sample of tin lead alloy has mass 8.5g.the relative density of tin is 7.3 and that of lead is 11.3.calculate the percentage by weight of tin in the alloy. assuming that there is no change of volume when the metals formed the alloy
Lila
morning, what will happen to the volume of an ice block when heat is added from -200°c to 0°c... Will it volume increase or decrease?
I think it is neither decreases nor increases ,it remains in the same volume because of its crystal structure
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture. take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid as 1.2g/cm3
Lila
Sorry what does it means"no changes in volume occured"?
Sobirjon
volume can be the amount of space occupied by an object. But when an object does not change in shape it will still occupy the same space. Thats why the volume will still remain the same
Ben
Most soilds expand when heated but if it changes state at 0C it will have less volume. Ice floats because it is less dense ie a larger mass per unit volume.
u are all wlc just ask your question anybody. can answer
Ajayi
good morning ppl
ABDUL
If someone has not studied Mathematics enough yet, should theu study it first then study Phusics or Study Basics of Physics whilst srudying Math as well?
whether u studied maths or not, it is advisable to start from d basics cuz it is essential to know dem
Nuru
yea you are right
Badmus
wow, you got this w/o knowing math
Thomas
I guess that's it
Thomas
later people
Thomas
mathematics is everywhere
Anand
thanks but dat doesn't mean it is good without maths @Riaz....... Maths is essential in sciences particularly wen it comes to PHYSICS but PHYSICS must be started from the basic which may also help in ur mathematical ability
Nuru
A hydrometer of mass 0.15kg and uniform cross sectional area of 0.0025m2 displaced in water of density 1000kg/m3.what depth will the hydrometer sink
Lila
16.66 meters?
Darshik
16.71m2
aways
,i have a question of let me give answer
aways
the mass is stretched a distance of 8cm and held
what is the potential energy?
quick answer
aways
oscillation is a to and fro movement, it can also be referred to as vibration. e.g loaded string, loaded test tube or an hinged door