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The figure shows a button-shaped magnet floating above a superconducting puck. Some wispy fog is flowing from the puck.
One characteristic of a superconductor is that it excludes magnetic flux and, thus, repels other magnets. The small magnet levitated above a high-temperature superconductor, which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, gives evidence that the material is superconducting. When the material warms and becomes conducting, magnetic flux can penetrate it, and the magnet will rest upon it. (credit: Saperaud)

The search is on for even higher T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} superconductors, many of complex and exotic copper oxide ceramics, sometimes including strontium, mercury, or yttrium as well as barium, calcium, and other elements. Room temperature (about 293 K) would be ideal, but any temperature close to room temperature is relatively cheap to produce and maintain. There are persistent reports of T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} s over 200 K and some in the vicinity of 270 K. Unfortunately, these observations are not routinely reproducible, with samples losing their superconducting nature once heated and recooled (cycled) a few times (see [link] .) They are now called USOs or unidentified superconducting objects, out of frustration and the refusal of some samples to show high T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} even though produced in the same manner as others. Reproducibility is crucial to discovery, and researchers are justifiably reluctant to claim the breakthrough they all seek. Time will tell whether USOs are real or an experimental quirk.

The theory of ordinary superconductors is difficult, involving quantum effects for widely separated electrons traveling through a material. Electrons couple in a manner that allows them to get through the material without losing energy to it, making it a superconductor. High- T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} superconductors are more difficult to understand theoretically, but theorists seem to be closing in on a workable theory. The difficulty of understanding how electrons can sneak through materials without losing energy in collisions is even greater at higher temperatures, where vibrating atoms should get in the way. Discoverers of high T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} may feel something analogous to what a politician once said upon an unexpected election victory—“I wonder what we did right?”

Figure a is a graph of resistivity versus temperature. The resistivity goes from zero to zero point six milli ohm centimeters and the temperature goes from one hundred to three hundred kelvin. There are three curves on the graph. The first curve starts near zero point one milli ohm centimeters, one hundred kelvin, and increases linearly to zero point six milli ohm centimeters, two hundred and eighty kelvin. The second curve is at zero resistivity from 100 kelvin to about two hundred and thirty five kelvin, then jumps straight up to zero point four milli ohm centimeters, after which it increases linearly with temperature with the same slope as the first curve. The third curve has one point at minus zero point zero five milli ohm centimeters at about one hundred and thirty kelvin, then becomes positive and increases essentially linearly with the same slope as the first curve. Figure b shows a scaffolding structure made up of rods. At each vertex in the scaffold there is a ball that is either white, red, purple, or blue. Each color represents a different kind of atom. The white balls are the largest, then the red, then the purple, and the blue balls are the smallest. The balls are arranged in a systematic pattern. From bottom to top the scaffold layers are formed from white and red balls, then red and blue balls, then purple balls, then again red and blue balls, then finally white and red balls again. In each individual layer the balls form various grid patterns. This scaffold structure forms a brick-like shape and an identical such brick is positioned above it with a gap between the two bricks. The two bricks are connected together by a single layer of blue balls.
(a) This graph, adapted from an article in Physics Today , shows the behavior of a single sample of a high-temperature superconductor in three different trials. In one case the sample exhibited a T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} of about 230 K, whereas in the others it did not become superconducting at all. The lack of reproducibility is typical of forefront experiments and prohibits definitive conclusions. (b) This colorful diagram shows the complex but systematic nature of the lattice structure of a high-temperature superconducting ceramic. (credit: en:Cadmium, Wikimedia Commons)

Section summary

  • High-temperature superconductors are materials that become superconducting at temperatures well above a few kelvin.
  • The critical temperature T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} is the temperature below which a material is superconducting.
  • Some high-temperature superconductors have verified T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} s above 125 K, and there are reports of T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} s as high as 250 K.

Conceptual questions

What is critical temperature T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} ? Do all materials have a critical temperature? Explain why or why not.

Explain how good thermal contact with liquid nitrogen can keep objects at a temperature of 77 K (liquid nitrogen’s boiling point at atmospheric pressure).

Not only is liquid nitrogen a cheaper coolant than liquid helium, its boiling point is higher (77 K vs. 4.2 K). How does higher temperature help lower the cost of cooling a material? Explain in terms of the rate of heat transfer being related to the temperature difference between the sample and its surroundings.

Problem exercises

A section of superconducting wire carries a current of 100 A and requires 1.00 L of liquid nitrogen per hour to keep it below its critical temperature. For it to be economically advantageous to use a superconducting wire, the cost of cooling the wire must be less than the cost of energy lost to heat in the wire. Assume that the cost of liquid nitrogen is $0.30 per liter, and that electric energy costs $0.10 per kW·h. What is the resistance of a normal wire that costs as much in wasted electric energy as the cost of liquid nitrogen for the superconductor?

0.30 Ω size 12{0 "." "30"` %OMEGA } {}

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics of the world around us. OpenStax CNX. May 21, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11797/1.1
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