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The movement of icebergs is another example of convection accompanied by a phase change. Suppose an iceberg drifts from Greenland into warmer Atlantic waters. Heat is removed from the warm ocean water when the ice melts and heat is released to the land mass when the iceberg forms on Greenland.

Explain why using a fan in the summer feels refreshing!

Using a fan increases the flow of air: warm air near your body is replaced by cooler air from elsewhere. Convection increases the rate of heat transfer so that moving air “feels” cooler than still air.

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Summary

  • Convection is heat transfer by the macroscopic movement of mass. Convection can be natural or forced and generally transfers thermal energy faster than conduction. [link] gives wind-chill factors, indicating that moving air has the same chilling effect of much colder stationary air. Convection that occurs along with a phase change can transfer energy from cold regions to warm ones.

Conceptual questions

One way to make a fireplace more energy efficient is to have an external air supply for the combustion of its fuel. Another is to have room air circulate around the outside of the fire box and back into the room. Detail the methods of heat transfer involved in each.

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On cold, clear nights horses will sleep under the cover of large trees. How does this help them keep warm?

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Problems&Exercises

At what wind speed does 10º C air cause the same chill factor as still air at 29º C size 12{ - "29"°C} {} ?

10 m/s

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At what temperature does still air cause the same chill factor as C size 12{ - 5°C} {} air moving at 15 m/s?

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The “steam” above a freshly made cup of instant coffee is really water vapor droplets condensing after evaporating from the hot coffee. What is the final temperature of 250 g of hot coffee initially at 90 . 0ºC size 12{"90" "." "0°C"} {} if 2.00 g evaporates from it? The coffee is in a Styrofoam cup, so other methods of heat transfer can be neglected.

85 . C size 12{"85" "." 7°C} {}

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(a) How many kilograms of water must evaporate from a 60.0-kg woman to lower her body temperature by 0 . 750ºC size 12{0 "." "750°C"} {} ?

(b) Is this a reasonable amount of water to evaporate in the form of perspiration, assuming the relative humidity of the surrounding air is low?

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On a hot dry day, evaporation from a lake has just enough heat transfer to balance the 1 . 00  kW/m 2 size 12{1 "." "00"`"kW/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} of incoming heat from the Sun. What mass of water evaporates in 1.00 h from each square meter? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for the Effects of Heat Transfer .

1.48 kg

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One winter day, the climate control system of a large university classroom building malfunctions. As a result, 500  m 3 size 12{"500"`m rSup { size 8{3} } } {} of excess cold air is brought in each minute. At what rate in kilowatts must heat transfer occur to warm this air by 10 . 0ºC size 12{"10" "." "0°C"} {} (that is, to bring the air to room temperature)?

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The Kilauea volcano in Hawaii is the world’s most active, disgorging about 5 × 10 5 m 3 of 1200ºC lava per day. What is the rate of heat transfer out of Earth by convection if this lava has a density of 2700 kg/m 3 and eventually cools to 30ºC ? Assume that the specific heat of lava is the same as that of granite.

A view of a lava flow on the Kilauea volcano of Hawaii.
Lava flow on Kilauea volcano in Hawaii. (credit: J. P. Eaton, U.S. Geological Survey)

2 × 10 4  MW size 12{2 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"MW"} {}

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During heavy exercise, the body pumps 2.00 L of blood per minute to the surface, where it is cooled by 2 . 00ºC size 12{2 "." "00°C"} {} . What is the rate of heat transfer from this forced convection alone, assuming blood has the same specific heat as water and its density is 1050  kg/m 3 size 12{"1050"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

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A person inhales and exhales 2.00 L of 37 . 0ºC air, evaporating 4 . 00 × 10 2  g of water from the lungs and breathing passages with each breath.

(a) How much heat transfer occurs due to evaporation in each breath?

(b) What is the rate of heat transfer in watts if the person is breathing at a moderate rate of 18.0 breaths per minute?

(c) If the inhaled air had a temperature of 20 . C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} , what is the rate of heat transfer for warming the air?

(d) Discuss the total rate of heat transfer as it relates to typical metabolic rates. Will this breathing be a major form of heat transfer for this person?

(a) 97.2 J

(b) 29.2 W

(c) 9.49 W

(d) The total rate of heat loss would be 29.2 W + 9.49 W = 38.7 W . While sleeping, our body consumes 83 W of power, while sitting it consumes 120 to 210 W. Therefore, the total rate of heat loss from breathing will not be a major form of heat loss for this person.

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A glass coffee pot has a circular bottom with a 9.00-cm diameter in contact with a heating element that keeps the coffee warm with a continuous heat transfer rate of 50.0 W

(a) What is the temperature of the bottom of the pot, if it is 3.00 mm thick and the inside temperature is 60 . 0ºC size 12{"60" "." "0°C"} {} ?

(b) If the temperature of the coffee remains constant and all of the heat transfer is removed by evaporation, how many grams per minute evaporate? Take the heat of vaporization to be 2340 kJ/kg.

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Questions & Answers

What is conductivity
Saud Reply
It is the ease with which electrical charges or heat can be transmitted through a material or a solution.
Cffrrcvccgg
how to find magnitude and direction
Arjune Reply
how to caclculate for speed
Arjune
derivation of ohms law
Kazeem Reply
derivation of resistance
Kazeem
R=v/I where R=resistor, v=voltage, I=current
Kazeem
magnitude
Arjune
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
Arjune
Electric current is the flow of electrons
Kelly Reply
is there really flow of electrons exist?
babar
Yes It exists
Cffrrcvccgg
explain plz how electrons flow
babar
if electron flows from where first come and end the first one
babar
an electron will flow accross a conductor because or when it posseses kinectic energy
Cffrrcvccgg
electron can not flow jist trasmit electrical energy
ghulam
free electrons of conductor
ankita
electric means the flow heat current.
Serah Reply
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
Serah
What is electric
Manasseh Reply
electric means?
ghulam
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
Serah
a boy cycles continuously through a distance of 1.0km in 5minutes. calculate his average speed in ms-1(meter per second). how do I solve this
Jenny Reply
speed = distance/time be sure to convert the km to m and minutes to seconds check my utube video "mathwithmrv speed"
PhysicswithMrV
d=1.0km÷1000=0.001 t=5×60=300s s=d\t s=0.001/300=0.0000033m\s
Serah
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
Arjune
why we cannot use DC instead of AC in a transformer
kusshaf Reply
becuse the d .c cannot travel for long distance trnsmission
ghulam
what is physics
Chiwetalu Reply
branch of science which deals with matter energy and their relationship between them
ghulam
Life science
the
what is heat and temperature
Kazeem Reply
how does sound affect temperature
Clement Reply
sound is directly proportional to the temperature.
juny
how to solve wave question
Wisdom Reply
I would like to know how I am not at all smart when it comes to math. please explain so I can understand. sincerly
Emma
Just know d relationship btw 1)wave length 2)frequency and velocity
Talhatu
First of all, you are smart and you will get it👍🏽... v = f × wavelength see my youtube channel: "mathwithmrv" if you want to know how to rearrange equations using the balance method
PhysicswithMrV
nice self promotion though xD
Beatrax
thanks dear
Chuks
hi pls help me with this question A ball is projected vertically upwards from the top of a tower 60m high with a velocity of 30ms1.what is the maximum height above the ground level?how long does it take to reach the ground level?
mahmoud
what is scalar quantities
babatunde
scaler quantity are quanties that have only direction and no magnitude
Natsu
ice Point
babatunde
please guys help, what is the difference between concave lens and convex lens
Vincent Reply
convex lens brings rays of light to a focus while concave diverges rays of light
Christian
for mmHg to kPa yes
Matthew
it depends on the size
Matthew Reply
please what is concave lens
Vincent
a lens which diverge the ray of light
rinzuala
concave diverges light
Matthew
thank you guys
Vincent
A diverging lens
Yusuf
What is isotope
Yusuf
each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element. "some elements have only one stable isotope
Karthi
what is wire wound resistors?
Naveedkhan Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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