# 32.5 Fusion

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• Define nuclear fusion.
• Discuss processes to achieve practical fusion energy generation.

While basking in the warmth of the summer sun, a student reads of the latest breakthrough in achieving sustained thermonuclear power and vaguely recalls hearing about the cold fusion controversy. The three are connected. The Sun’s energy is produced by nuclear fusion (see [link] ). Thermonuclear power is the name given to the use of controlled nuclear fusion as an energy source. While research in the area of thermonuclear power is progressing, high temperatures and containment difficulties remain. The cold fusion controversy centered around unsubstantiated claims of practical fusion power at room temperatures.

Nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two nuclei are combined, or fused , to form a larger nucleus. We know that all nuclei have less mass than the sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons that form them. The missing mass times ${c}^{2}$ equals the binding energy of the nucleus—the greater the binding energy, the greater the missing mass. We also know that $\text{BE}/A$ , the binding energy per nucleon, is greater for medium-mass nuclei and has a maximum at Fe (iron). This means that if two low-mass nuclei can be fused together to form a larger nucleus, energy can be released. The larger nucleus has a greater binding energy and less mass per nucleon than the two that combined. Thus mass is destroyed in the fusion reaction, and energy is released (see [link] ). On average, fusion of low-mass nuclei releases energy, but the details depend on the actual nuclides involved.

The major obstruction to fusion is the Coulomb repulsion between nuclei. Since the attractive nuclear force that can fuse nuclei together is short ranged, the repulsion of like positive charges must be overcome to get nuclei close enough to induce fusion. [link] shows an approximate graph of the potential energy between two nuclei as a function of the distance between their centers. The graph is analogous to a hill with a well in its center. A ball rolled from the right must have enough kinetic energy to get over the hump before it falls into the deeper well with a net gain in energy. So it is with fusion. If the nuclei are given enough kinetic energy to overcome the electric potential energy due to repulsion, then they can combine, release energy, and fall into a deep well. One way to accomplish this is to heat fusion fuel to high temperatures so that the kinetic energy of thermal motion is sufficient to get the nuclei together.

#### Questions & Answers

why is it dat when using double pan balance the known and unknown mass are the same
is there more then 4 dimensions
hii
princy
hi
Miguel
hello I kinda need help in physics... a lot
Brown
Brown. what kind of help
Jeff
when it comes to physics stick with the basics don't overthink things
Jeff
yes
ayesha
sticking to the basics will take you farther than overwhelming yourself with more than you need to physics is simple keep it simple
Jeff
thk u Ayesha
Jeff
for real....? so I've got to know the fundamentals and use the formula to solve any problem
Brown
read Stephan hawkings a brief history of time
ayesha
it'll help you understand better than summing up formulas or ready textbooks
ayesha
physics isn't hard it's just understanding and applying the formulas if u need help ask any question
ayesha
okay...because I've got an exam next year February a Computer based exam
Brown
start with a pace a plan and stick to it
ayesha
well best of luck can't help you much there contact your teachers for tips and helpful notes
ayesha
how can we find absolute uncertainty
it what?
Luke
in physics
ayesha
the basic formula is uncertainty in momentum multiplied buy uncertainty In position is greater than or equal to 4×pi/2. same formula for energy and time
Luke
I have this one question can you please look it up it's 9702/22/O/N/17 Question 1 B 3
ayesha
what
uma
would you like physics?
Suthar
yes
farooq
precision or absolute uncertainty is always equal to least count of that instrument
Iram
how do I unlock the MCQ and the Essay?
what is the dimension of strain
Is there a formula for time of free fall given that the body has initial velocity? In other words, formula for time that takes a downward-shot projectile to hit the ground. Thanks!
hi
Agboro
hiii
Chandan
Hi
Sahim
hi
Jeff
hey
Priscilla
sup guys
Bile
Hy
Kulsum
What is unit of watt?
Kulsum
watt is the unit of power
Rahul
p=f.v
Rahul
watt can also be expressed as Nm/s
Rahul
what s i unit of mass
Maxamed
SI unit of mass is Kg(kilogram).
Robel
what is formula of distance
Maxamed
Formula for for the falling body with initial velocity is:v^2=v(initial)^2+2*g*h
Mateo
i can't understand
Maxamed
we can't do this calculation without knowing the height of the initial position of the particle
Chathu
sorry but no more in science
Imoreh
2 forces whose resultant is 100N, are at right angle to each other .if one of them makes an angle of 30 degree with the resultant determine it's magnitude
50 N... (50 *1.732)N
Sahim
Plz cheak the ans and give reply..
Sahim
50 N...(50 *1.732)N
Ibrahim
show the working
usiomon
what is the value of f1 and f2
Syed
what is the value of force 1 and force 2.
Syed
.
Is earth is an inertial frame?
The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system
Sahim
thanks
Irungu
Most welcome
Sahim
Hey.. I've a question.
Is earth inertia frame?
Sahim
only the center
Shii
What is an abucus?
Irungu
what would be the correct interrogation "what is time?" or "how much has your watch ticked?"
prakash
a load of 20N on a wire of cross sectional area 8×10^-7m produces an extension of 10.4m. calculate the young modules of the material of the wire is of length 5m
Young's modulus = stress/strain strain = extension/length (x/l) stress = force/area (F/A) stress/strain is F l/A x
El
so solve it
Ebenezer
Ebenezer
two bodies x and y start from rest and move with uniform acceleration of a and 4a respectively. if the bodies cover the same distance in terms of tx and ty what is the ratio of tx to ty
what is cesium atoms?
The atoms which form the element Cesium are known as Cesium atoms.
Naman
A material that combines with and removes trace gases from vacuum tubes.
Shankar
what is difference between entropy and heat capacity
Varun
Heat capacity can be defined as the amount of thermal energy required to warm the sample by 1°C. entropy is the disorder of the system. heat capacity is high when the disorder is high.
Chathu
I want learn physics
sir how to understanding clearly
Vinodhini
try to imagine everything you study in 3d
revolutionary
pls give me one title
Vinodhini
displacement acceleration how understand
Vinodhini
vernier caliper usage practically
Vinodhini
karthik sir is there
Vinodhini
what are the solution to all the exercise..?
What is realm
The quantum realm, also called the quantum scale, is a term of art inphysics referring to scales where quantum mechanical effects become important when studied as an isolated system. Typically, this means distances of 100 nanometers (10−9meters) or less or at very low temperature.
revolutionary