# 24.3 The electromagnetic spectrum  (Page 8/33)

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Living things—plants and animals—have evolved to utilize and respond to parts of the electromagnetic spectrum they are embedded in. Visible light is the most predominant and we enjoy the beauty of nature through visible light. Plants are more selective. Photosynthesis makes use of parts of the visible spectrum to make sugars.

## Integrated concept problem: correcting vision with lasers

During laser vision correction, a brief burst of 193-nm ultraviolet light is projected onto the cornea of a patient. It makes a spot 0.80 mm in diameter and evaporates a layer of cornea $0\text{.}\text{30}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\mu \text{m}$ thick. Calculate the energy absorbed, assuming the corneal tissue has the same properties as water; it is initially at $\text{34º}\text{C}$ . Assume the evaporated tissue leaves at a temperature of $\text{100º}\text{C}$ .

Strategy

The energy from the laser light goes toward raising the temperature of the tissue and also toward evaporating it. Thus we have two amounts of heat to add together. Also, we need to find the mass of corneal tissue involved.

Solution

To figure out the heat required to raise the temperature of the tissue to $\text{100º}\text{C}$ , we can apply concepts of thermal energy. We know that

$\text{Q}=\text{mc}\Delta T,$

where Q is the heat required to raise the temperature, $\Delta T$ is the desired change in temperature, $m$ is the mass of tissue to be heated, and $c$ is the specific heat of water equal to 4186 J/kg/K.

Without knowing the mass $m$ at this point, we have

$Q=m\left(\text{4186 J/kg/K}\right)\left(\text{100º}\text{C}–\text{34º}\text{C}\right)=m\left(\text{276,276 J/kg}\right)=m\left(\text{276 kJ/kg}\right).$

The latent heat of vaporization of water is 2256 kJ/kg, so that the energy needed to evaporate mass $m$ is

${Q}_{\text{v}}={\mathrm{mL}}_{\text{v}}=m\left(\text{2256 kJ/kg}\right).$

To find the mass $m$ , we use the equation $\rho =m/\text{V}$ , where $\rho$ is the density of the tissue and $\text{V}$ is its volume. For this case,

$\begin{array}{lll}m& =& \rho \text{V}\\ & =& {\text{(1000 kg/m}}^{3}\right)\left(\text{area}×\text{thickness}{\text{(m}}^{3}\text{))}\\ & =& \text{(1000 kg/}{\text{m}}^{3}\right)\left(\pi \left(0.80×{\text{10}}^{–3}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}{\right)}^{2}/4\right)\left(0\text{.}\text{30}×{\text{10}}^{–6}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{m}\right)\\ & =& 0.151×{\text{10}}^{–9}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg.}\end{array}$

Therefore, the total energy absorbed by the tissue in the eye is the sum of $\text{Q}$ and ${\text{Q}}_{\text{v}}$ :

${\text{Q}}_{\text{tot}}=m\left(c\Delta \text{T}+{\text{L}}_{\text{v}}\right)=\left(0.151×{\text{10}}^{-9}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kg}\right)\left(\text{276 kJ/kg}+\text{2256 kJ/kg}\right)=\text{382}×{\text{10}}^{-9}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{kJ}.$

Discussion

The lasers used for this eye surgery are excimer lasers, whose light is well absorbed by biological tissue. They evaporate rather than burn the tissue, and can be used for precision work. Most lasers used for this type of eye surgery have an average power rating of about one watt. For our example, if we assume that each laser burst from this pulsed laser lasts for 10 ns, and there are 400 bursts per second, then the average power is ${\text{Q}}_{\text{tot}}×\text{400}=\text{150 mW}$ .

Optics is the study of the behavior of visible light and other forms of electromagnetic waves. Optics falls into two distinct categories. When electromagnetic radiation, such as visible light, interacts with objects that are large compared with its wavelength, its motion can be represented by straight lines like rays. Ray optics is the study of such situations and includes lenses and mirrors.

When electromagnetic radiation interacts with objects about the same size as the wavelength or smaller, its wave nature becomes apparent. For example, observable detail is limited by the wavelength, and so visible light can never detect individual atoms, because they are so much smaller than its wavelength. Physical or wave optics is the study of such situations and includes all wave characteristics.

#### Questions & Answers

what is temperature
temperature is the measure of degree of hotness or coldness of a body. measured in kelvin
a characteristic which tells hotness or coldness of a body
babar
Average kinetic energy of an object
Kym
average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Kym
A measure of the quantity of heat contained in an object which arises from the average kinetic energy of the constituent particles of that object. It can be measured using thermometers. It has a unit of kelvin in the thermodynamic scale and degree Celsius in the Celsius scale.
ibrahim
Mass of air bubble in material medium is negative. why?
a car move 6m. what is the acceleration?
depends how long
Peter
What is the simplest explanation on the difference of principle, law and a theory
how did the value of gravitational constant came give me the explanation
how did the value of gravitational constant 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg-2
Varun
A steel ball is dropped onto a hard floor from a height of 1.50 m and rebounds to a height of 1.45 m. (a) Calculate its velocity just before it strikes the floor.
9.8m/s?
Sqrt(2*1.5m*9.81m/s^2)
Richard
0.5m* mate.
0.05 I meant.
Guess your solution is correct considering the ball fall from 1.5m height initially.
Sqrt(2*1.5m*9.81m/s^2)
Deepak
How can we compare different combinations of capacitors?
find the dimension of acceleration if it's unit is ms-2
lt^-2
b=-2 ,a =1
M^0 L^1T^-2
Sneha
what is botany
Masha
it is a branch of science which deal with the study of plants animals and environment
Varun
what is work
a boy moving with an initial velocity of 2m\s and finally canes to rest with a velocity of 3m\s square at times 10se calculate it acceleration
Sunday
.
Abdul
6.6 lol 😁😁
Abdul
show ur work
Sunday
sorry..the answer is -10
Abdul
your question is wrong
Abdul
If the boy is coming to rest then how the hell will his final velocity be 3 it'll be zero
Abdul
re-write the question
Nicolas
men i -10 isn't correct.
Stephen
using v=u + at
Stephen
1/10
Happy
ya..1/10 is very correct..
Stephen
hnn
Happy
how did the value 6.67×10°-11Nm2kg2 came tell me please
Varun
Work is the product of force and distance
Kym
physicist
Michael
what is longitudinal wave
A longitudinal wave is wave which moves parallel or along the direction of propagation.
sahil
longitudinal wave in liquid is square root of bulk of modulus by density of liquid
harishree
Is British mathematical units the same as the United States units?(like inches, cm, ext.)
We use SI units: kg, m etc but the US sometimes refer to inches etc as British units even though we no longer use them.
Richard
Thanks, just what I needed to know.
Nina
What is the advantage of a diffraction grating over a double slit in dispersing light into a spectrum?
can I ask questions?
yes.
Abdul
Yes
Albert
sure
Ajali
yeap
Sani
yesssss
bilal
hello guys
Ibitayo
when you will ask the question
Ana
anybody can ask here
bichu
is free energy possible with magnets?
joel
no
Mr.
you could construct an aparatus that might have a slightly higher 'energy profit' than energy used, but you would havw to maintain the machine, and most likely keep it in a vacuum, for no air resistance, and cool it, so chances are quite slim.
Mr.
calculate the force, p, required to just make a 6kg object move along the horizontal surface where the coefficient of friction is 0.25
Gbolahan
Albert
if a man travel 7km 30degree east of North then 10km east find the resultant displacement
11km
Dohn
disagree. Displacement is the hypotenuse length of the final position to the starting position. Find x,y components of each leg of journey to determine final position, then use final components to calculate the displacement.
Daniel
1.The giant star Betelgeuse emits radiant energy at a rate of 10exponent4 times greater than our sun, where as it surface temperature is only half (2900k) that of our sun. Estimate the radius of Betelgeuse assuming e=1, the sun's radius is s=7*10exponent8metres
2. A ceramic teapot (e=0.20) and a shiny one (e=0.10), each hold 0.25 l of at 95degrees. A. Estimate the temperature rate of heat loss from each B. Estimate the temperature drop after 30mins for each. Consider only radiation and assume the surrounding at 20degrees
James