# 2.5 Motion equations for constant acceleration in one dimension  (Page 3/8)

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In addition to being useful in problem solving, the equation $v={v}_{0}+\text{at}$ gives us insight into the relationships among velocity, acceleration, and time. From it we can see, for example, that

• final velocity depends on how large the acceleration is and how long it lasts
• if the acceleration is zero, then the final velocity equals the initial velocity $\left(v={v}_{0}\right)$ , as expected (i.e., velocity is constant)
• if $a$ is negative, then the final velocity is less than the initial velocity

(All of these observations fit our intuition, and it is always useful to examine basic equations in light of our intuition and experiences to check that they do indeed describe nature accurately.)

## Making connections: real-world connection

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) has a larger average acceleration than the Space Shuttle and achieves a greater velocity in the first minute or two of flight (actual ICBM burn times are classified—short-burn-time missiles are more difficult for an enemy to destroy). But the Space Shuttle obtains a greater final velocity, so that it can orbit the earth rather than come directly back down as an ICBM does. The Space Shuttle does this by accelerating for a longer time.

## Solving for final position when velocity is not constant ( $a\ne 0$ )

We can combine the equations above to find a third equation that allows us to calculate the final position of an object experiencing constant acceleration. We start with

$v={v}_{0}+\text{at}.$

Adding ${v}_{0}$ to each side of this equation and dividing by 2 gives

$\frac{{v}_{0}+v}{2}={v}_{0}+\frac{1}{2}\text{at}\text{.}$

Since $\frac{{v}_{0}+v}{2}=\stackrel{-}{v}$ for constant acceleration, then

$\stackrel{-}{v}={v}_{0}+\frac{1}{2}\text{at}\text{.}$

Now we substitute this expression for $\stackrel{-}{v}$ into the equation for displacement, $x={x}_{0}+\stackrel{-}{v}t$ , yielding

$x={x}_{0}+{v}_{0}t+\frac{1}{2}{\text{at}}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\text{constant}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}a\right)\text{.}$

## Calculating displacement of an accelerating object: dragsters

Dragsters can achieve average accelerations of $\text{26}\text{.}{\text{0 m/s}}^{2}$ . Suppose such a dragster accelerates from rest at this rate for 5.56 s. How far does it travel in this time?

Strategy

Draw a sketch.

We are asked to find displacement, which is $x$ if we take ${x}_{0}$ to be zero. (Think about it like the starting line of a race. It can be anywhere, but we call it 0 and measure all other positions relative to it.) We can use the equation $x={x}_{0}+{v}_{0}t+\frac{1}{2}{\text{at}}^{2}$ once we identify ${v}_{0}$ , $a$ , and $t$ from the statement of the problem.

Solution

1. Identify the knowns. Starting from rest means that ${v}_{0}=0$ , $a$ is given as $\text{26}\text{.}0\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m/s}}^{2}$ and $t$ is given as 5.56 s.

2. Plug the known values into the equation to solve for the unknown $x$ :

$x={x}_{0}+{v}_{0}t+\frac{1}{2}{\text{at}}^{2}\text{.}$

Since the initial position and velocity are both zero, this simplifies to

$x=\frac{1}{2}{\text{at}}^{2}\text{.}$

Substituting the identified values of $a$ and $t$ gives

$x=\frac{1}{2}\left(\text{26}\text{.}{\text{0 m/s}}^{2}\right){\left(5\text{.}\text{56 s}\right)}^{2},$

yielding

$x=\text{402 m.}$

Discussion

If we convert 402 m to miles, we find that the distance covered is very close to one quarter of a mile, the standard distance for drag racing. So the answer is reasonable. This is an impressive displacement in only 5.56 s, but top-notch dragsters can do a quarter mile in even less time than this.

Give an example (but not one from the text) of a device used to measure time and identify what change in that device indicates a change in time.
hour glass, pendulum clock, atomic clock?
S.M
tnks
David
how did they solve for "t" after getting 67.6=.5(Voy + 0)t
Find the following for path D in [link] : (a) The distance traveled. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (c) The displacement from start to finish.
the topic is kinematics
David
can i get notes of solid state physics
Lohitha
just check the chpt. 13 kinetic theory of matter it's there
David
is acceleration a fundamental unit.
no it is derived
Abdul
no
Nisha
K thanks
David
no it's not its derived
Emmanuel
hi
Hello
Emmanuel
hello
David
Hello Emmanuel
Emmanuel
I'm good
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Emmanuel
how are you too
am cool
Emmanuel
spending time summarizing
Emmanuel
Emmanuel
I am fin
Longwar
ok
hi guys can you teach me how to solve a logarithm?
how about a conceptual framework can you simplify for me? needed please
Villaflor
Hello what happens when electrone stops its rotation around its nucleus if it possible how
Afzal
I think they are constantly moving
Villaflor
yep what is problem you are stuck into context?
S.M
not possible to fix electron position in space,
S.M
Physics
Beatriz
yes of course Villa flor
David
equations of kinematics for constant acceleration
A bottle full of water weighs 45g when full of mercury,it weighs 360g.if the empty bottle weighs 20g.calculate the relative density of mercury and the density of mercury....pls I need help
well You know the density of water is 1000kg/m^3.And formula for density is density=mass/volume Then we must calculate volume of bottle and mass of mercury: Volume of bottle is (45-20)/1000000=1/40000 mass of mercury is:(360-20)/1000 kg density of mercury:(340/1000):1/50000=(340•40000):1000=13600
Sobirjon
the latter is true
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture...take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid 1.2g/cm3
Lila
plz hu can explain Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
who can help me with my problem about acceleration?
ok
Nicholas
how to solve this... a car is heading north then smoothly made a westward turn during the travel the speed of the car remains constant at 1.5km/h what is the acceleration of the car? the total travel time of the car as it smoothly changed its direction is 15 minutes
Vann
i think the acceleration is 0 since the car does not change its speed unless there are other conditions
Ben
yes I have to agree, the key phrase is, "the speed of the car remains constant...," all other information is not needed to conclude that acceleration remains at 0 during the entire time
Luis
who can help me with a relative density question
Lila
1cm3 sample of tin lead alloy has mass 8.5g.the relative density of tin is 7.3 and that of lead is 11.3.calculate the percentage by weight of tin in the alloy. assuming that there is no change of volume when the metals formed the alloy
Lila
morning, what will happen to the volume of an ice block when heat is added from -200°c to 0°c... Will it volume increase or decrease?
no
Emmanuel
hi what is physical education?
Kate
BPED..is my course.
Kate
No
Emmanuel
I think it is neither decreases nor increases ,it remains in the same volume because of its crystal structure
Sobirjon
100g of water is mixed with 60g of a liquid of relative density 1.2.assuming no changes in volume occurred,find the average relative density of the mixture. take density of water as 1g/cm3 and density of liquid as 1.2g/cm3
Lila
Sorry what does it means"no changes in volume occured"?
Sobirjon
volume can be the amount of space occupied by an object. But when an object does not change in shape it will still occupy the same space. Thats why the volume will still remain the same
Ben
Most soilds expand when heated but if it changes state at 0C it will have less volume. Ice floats because it is less dense ie a larger mass per unit volume.
Richard
how to calculate velocity
v=d/t
Emeka
Villaflor
Villaflor
v=d/t
Nisha
hello bro hw is life with you
Mine is good. How about you?
Chase
Hi room of engineers
yes,hi sir
Okwethu
hello
akinmeji
Hello
Mishael
hello
Jerry
hi
Sakhi
hi
H.C
so, what is going on here
akinmeji
Ajayi
good morning ppl
ABDUL
If someone has not studied Mathematics enough yet, should theu study it first then study Phusics or Study Basics of Physics whilst srudying Math as well?
whether u studied maths or not, it is advisable to start from d basics cuz it is essential to know dem
Nuru
yea you are right
wow, you got this w/o knowing math
Thomas
I guess that's it
Thomas
later people
Thomas
mathematics is everywhere
Anand
thanks but dat doesn't mean it is good without maths @Riaz....... Maths is essential in sciences particularly wen it comes to PHYSICS but PHYSICS must be started from the basic which may also help in ur mathematical ability
Nuru
A hydrometer of mass 0.15kg and uniform cross sectional area of 0.0025m2 displaced in water of density 1000kg/m3.what depth will the hydrometer sink
Lila
16.66 meters?
Darshik
16.71m2
aways
,i have a question of let me give answer
aways
the mass is stretched a distance of 8cm and held what is the potential energy? quick answer
aways
oscillation is a to and fro movement, it can also be referred to as vibration. e.g loaded string, loaded test tube or an hinged door