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  1. Calculate the change in gravitational potential energy as the truck goes downhill
    Mgh = 10,000 kg 9 . 80 m /s 2 75.0 m = 7. 35 × 10 6 J.
  2. Calculate the temperature from the heat transferred using Q = Mgh size 12{Q"= " ital "Mgh"} {} and
    Δ T = Q mc , size 12{ΔT= { {Q} over { ital "mc"} } } {}

    where m is the mass of the brake material. Insert the values m = 100 kg and c = 800 J/kg ºC to find

    Δ T = 7 .35 × 10 6 J 100 kg 800 J/kgºC = 92ºC.


This temperature is close to the boiling point of water. If the truck had been traveling for some time, then just before the descent, the brake temperature would likely be higher than the ambient temperature. The temperature increase in the descent would likely raise the temperature of the brake material above the boiling point of water, so this technique is not practical. However, the same idea underlies the recent hybrid technology of cars, where mechanical energy (gravitational potential energy) is converted by the brakes into electrical energy (battery).

Specific heats The values for solids and liquids are at constant volume and at 25ºC , except as noted. Of various substances
Substances Specific heat ( c )
Solids J/kg⋅ºC kcal/kg⋅ºC These values are identical in units of cal/g ⋅ºC .
Aluminum 900 0.215
Asbestos 800 0.19
Concrete, granite (average) 840 0.20
Copper 387 0.0924
Glass 840 0.20
Gold 129 0.0308
Human body (average at 37 °C) 3500 0.83
Ice (average, -50°C to 0°C) 2090 0.50
Iron, steel 452 0.108
Lead 128 0.0305
Silver 235 0.0562
Wood 1700 0.4
Benzene 1740 0.415
Ethanol 2450 0.586
Glycerin 2410 0.576
Mercury 139 0.0333
Water (15.0 °C) 4186 1.000
Gases c v at constant volume and at 20 . 0ºC , except as noted, and at 1.00 atm average pressure. Values in parentheses are c p at a constant pressure of 1.00 atm.
Air (dry) 721 (1015) 0.172 (0.242)
Ammonia 1670 (2190) 0.399 (0.523)
Carbon dioxide 638 (833) 0.152 (0.199)
Nitrogen 739 (1040) 0.177 (0.248)
Oxygen 651 (913) 0.156 (0.218)
Steam (100°C) 1520 (2020) 0.363 (0.482)

Note that [link] is an illustration of the mechanical equivalent of heat. Alternatively, the temperature increase could be produced by a blow torch instead of mechanically.

Calculating the final temperature when heat is transferred between two bodies: pouring cold water in a hot pan

Suppose you pour 0.250 kg of 20 .0ºC water (about a cup) into a 0.500-kg aluminum pan off the stove with a temperature of 150ºC . Assume that the pan is placed on an insulated pad and that a negligible amount of water boils off. What is the temperature when the water and pan reach thermal equilibrium a short time later?


The pan is placed on an insulated pad so that little heat transfer occurs with the surroundings. Originally the pan and water are not in thermal equilibrium: the pan is at a higher temperature than the water. Heat transfer then restores thermal equilibrium once the water and pan are in contact. Because heat transfer between the pan and water takes place rapidly, the mass of evaporated water is negligible and the magnitude of the heat lost by the pan is equal to the heat gained by the water. The exchange of heat stops once a thermal equilibrium between the pan and the water is achieved. The heat exchange can be written as Q hot = Q cold size 12{ \lline Q rSub { size 8{"hot"} } \lline =Q rSub { size 8{"cold"} } } {} .

Questions & Answers

hello friends what is hadronic heating systems
Rabilu Reply
Hydronics is the use of a liquid heat-transfer medium in heating and cooling systems. 
what is mass
Victor Reply
is the amount of an object
mass is the measure of the inertia of a body
advantages of CRO over ordinary voltmeter
Dismas Reply
what is the difference between displacement and distance?!
Daniel Reply
what is equilibrium
Sade Reply
If a system is said to be under equilibrium whenever there is no force act upon it... And it remain in its initial stage..
what is velocity
time rate of displacement of a body is called velocity
velocity is the gradient of acceleration time graph
actually equilibrium is when a body is in total balance where in no external force is acting on it. Or the forces on the left hand side equal those on the left hand side and downward forces equal upward forces & anticlockwise moment equal clockwise moment about the same point.
I mean left hand side and right hand side
What is conductivity
Saud Reply
It is the ease with which electrical charges or heat can be transmitted through a material or a solution.
how to find magnitude and direction
Arjune Reply
how to caclculate for speed
derivation of ohms law
Kazeem Reply
derivation of resistance
R=v/I where R=resistor, v=voltage, I=current
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
Electric current is the flow of electrons
Kelly Reply
is there really flow of electrons exist?
Yes It exists
explain plz how electrons flow
if electron flows from where first come and end the first one
an electron will flow accross a conductor because or when it posseses kinectic energy
electron can not flow jist trasmit electrical energy
free electrons of conductor
electric means the flow heat current.
Serah Reply
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
What is electric
Manasseh Reply
electric means?
electric means the flow of heat current in a circuit.
electric means the flow of electric current through conductor
the continuos flow of electrons in a circuit is called electric
electric means charge
electric means current
flow of current.
a boy cycles continuously through a distance of 1.0km in 5minutes. calculate his average speed in ms-1(meter per second). how do I solve this
Jenny Reply
speed = distance/time be sure to convert the km to m and minutes to seconds check my utube video "mathwithmrv speed"
d=1.0km÷1000=0.001 t=5×60=300s s=d\t s=0.001/300=0.0000033m\s
A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an x, y coordinate system at time t 0 s, the x components of the puck’s ini￾tial velocity and acceleration are v0x 1.0 m/s and ax 2.0 m/s2 . The y components of the puck’s initial velocity and acceleration are v0y 2.0 m/s and ay 2.0
D=1km=1000m t=5mins×60secs=300sec s=d/t=3.333m/s
I think Daniel Glorious is ryt
why we cannot use DC instead of AC in a transformer
kusshaf Reply
becuse the d .c cannot travel for long distance trnsmission
what is physics
Chiwetalu Reply
branch of science which deals with matter energy and their relationship between them
Life science
what is heat and temperature
Kazeem Reply
Practice Key Terms 1

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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