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F S = 6 πRηv . size 12{F rSub { size 8{S} } =6πRηv} {}
Part a of the figure shows a sphere moving in a fluid. The fluid lines are shown to move toward the left. The viscous force on the sphere is also toward the left given by F v as shown by the arrow. The flow is shown as laminar as shown by linear bending lines. Part b of the figure shows a sphere moving with higher speed in a fluid. The fluid lines are shown to move toward the left. The viscous force on the sphere is also toward the left given by F v prime as shown by the arrow. The flow is shown as laminar above and below the sphere shown by linear lines of flow and turbulent on left of the sphere shown by curly lines of flow. Part c of the figure shows a sphere still moving with higher speed in a fluid. The fluid lines are shown to move toward the left at the edges of flow away from the sphere. The viscous force on the sphere is also toward the left given by F v double prime as shown by the arrow. The flow is turbulent all around the sphere as shown by curly lines of flow. The viscous drag F v double prime is shown to be still greater by longer length of arrows.
(a) Motion of this sphere to the right is equivalent to fluid flow to the left. Here the flow is laminar with N R size 12{ { {N}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{R} } } {} less than 1. There is a force, called viscous drag F V size 12{F rSub { size 8{V} } } {} , to the left on the ball due to the fluid’s viscosity. (b) At a higher speed, the flow becomes partially turbulent, creating a wake starting where the flow lines separate from the surface. Pressure in the wake is less than in front of the sphere, because fluid speed is less, creating a net force to the left F V size 12{ { {F}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{V} } } {} that is significantly greater than for laminar flow. Here N R size 12{ { {N}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{R} } } {} is greater than 10. (c) At much higher speeds, where N R size 12{ { {N}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{R} } } {} is greater than 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} , flow becomes turbulent everywhere on the surface and behind the sphere. Drag increases dramatically.

An interesting consequence of the increase in F V size 12{F rSub { size 8{V} } } {} with speed is that an object falling through a fluid will not continue to accelerate indefinitely (as it would if we neglect air resistance, for example). Instead, viscous drag increases, slowing acceleration, until a critical speed, called the terminal speed    , is reached and the acceleration of the object becomes zero. Once this happens, the object continues to fall at constant speed (the terminal speed). This is the case for particles of sand falling in the ocean, cells falling in a centrifuge, and sky divers falling through the air. [link] shows some of the factors that affect terminal speed. There is a viscous drag on the object that depends on the viscosity of the fluid and the size of the object. But there is also a buoyant force that depends on the density of the object relative to the fluid. Terminal speed will be greatest for low-viscosity fluids and objects with high densities and small sizes. Thus a skydiver falls more slowly with outspread limbs than when they are in a pike position—head first with hands at their side and legs together.

Take-home experiment: don’t lose your marbles

By measuring the terminal speed of a slowly moving sphere in a viscous fluid, one can find the viscosity of that fluid (at that temperature). It can be difficult to find small ball bearings around the house, but a small marble will do. Gather two or three fluids (syrup, motor oil, honey, olive oil, etc.) and a thick, tall clear glass or vase. Drop the marble into the center of the fluid and time its fall (after letting it drop a little to reach its terminal speed). Compare your values for the terminal speed and see if they are inversely proportional to the viscosities as listed in [link] . Does it make a difference if the marble is dropped near the side of the glass?

Knowledge of terminal speed is useful for estimating sedimentation rates of small particles. We know from watching mud settle out of dirty water that sedimentation is usually a slow process. Centrifuges are used to speed sedimentation by creating accelerated frames in which gravitational acceleration is replaced by centripetal acceleration, which can be much greater, increasing the terminal speed.

The figure shows the forces acting on an oval shaped object falling through a viscous fluid. An enlarged view of the object is shown toward the left to analyze the forces in detail. The weight of the object w acts vertically downward. The viscous drag F v and buoyant force F b acts vertically upward. The length of the object is given by L. The density of the object is given by rho obj and density of the fluid by rho fl.
There are three forces acting on an object falling through a viscous fluid: its weight w size 12{w} {} , the viscous drag F V size 12{F rSub { size 8{V} } } {} , and the buoyant force F B size 12{F rSub { size 8{B} } } {} .

Section summary

  • When an object moves in a fluid, there is a different form of the Reynolds number N R = ρ vL η (object in fluid), size 12{ { {N}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{R} } = { {ρ ital "vL"} over {η} } } {} which indicates whether flow is laminar or turbulent.
  • For N R size 12{ { {N}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{R} } } {} less than about one, flow is laminar.
  • For N R size 12{ { {N}} sup { ' } rSub { size 8{R} } } {} greater than 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} , flow is entirely turbulent.

Conceptual questions

What direction will a helium balloon move inside a car that is slowing down—toward the front or back? Explain your answer.

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Will identical raindrops fall more rapidly in 5º C size 12{5 rSup { size 12{ circ } } C} {} air or 25º C size 12{"25" rSup { size 12{ circ } } C} {} air, neglecting any differences in air density? Explain your answer.

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If you took two marbles of different sizes, what would you expect to observe about the relative magnitudes of their terminal velocities?

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Questions & Answers

Why is there no 2nd harmonic in the classical electron orbit?
Shree Reply
how to reform magnet after been demagneted
Inuwa Reply
A petrol engine has a output of 20 kilowatts and uses 4.5 kg of fuel for each hour of running. The energy given out when 1 kg of petrol is burnt is 4.8 × 10 to the power of 7 Joules. a) What is the energy output of the engine every hour? b) What is the energy input of the engine every hour?
Morris Reply
what is the error during taking work done of a body..
Aliyu Reply
what kind of error do you think? and work is held by which force?
Daniela
I am now in this group
smart
theory,laws,principles and what-a-view are not defined. why? you
Douglas Reply
A simple pendulum is used in a physics laboratory experiment to obtain an experimental value for the gravitational acceleration, g . A student measures the length of the pendulum to be 0.510 meters, displaces it 10 o from the equilibrium position, and releases it. Using a s
Emmanuel Reply
so what question are you passing across... sir?
Olalekan
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed?
Emmanuel Reply
54 joule
babar
how?
rakesh
Reduce that two body problem into one body problem. Apply potential and k. E formula to get total energy of the system
rakesh
i dont think dere is any potential energy... by d virtue of no height present
Olalekan
there is compressed energy,dats only potential energy na?
rakesh
yes.. but... how will u approach that question without The Height in the question?
Olalekan
Can you explain how you get 54J?
Emmanuel
Because mine is 36J
Emmanuel
got 36J too
Douglas
OK the answer is 54J Babar is correct
Emmanuel
Conservation of Momentum
Emmanuel
woow i see.. can you give the formula for this
joshua
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed? Asume there is no external force.
Emmanuel Reply
Please help!
Emmanuel
please help find dy/dx 2x-y/x+y
Inuwa
By using the Quotient Rule dy/dx = 3y/(x +y)²
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Emmanuel
may be by using MC^2=MC^2 and Total energy=kinetic energy +potential energy so 1st find kinetic energy and den find potential energy which is stored energy
rakesh
i think i m correct
rakesh
But how?
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Douglas
what's the big bang?
kwame Reply
yes what is it?
LamaBbake
it is the explanation of how the universe began
Zainab
yes
Ana
explain
Chinagorom
in
Chinagorom
it is a theory on how the universe began. to understand more I would suggest researching the topic online.
david
thanks guys
kwame
if a force of 12N is applied to load of 200g what us the work done
Joshua Reply
We can seek accelation first
Nancy
we are given f=12 m=200g which is 0.2kg now from 2nd law of newton a= f/m=60m/s*2 work done=force applied x displacement cos (theta) w= 12x60 =720nm/s*2
Mudang
this very interesting question very complicated for me, í need urgent help. 1,two buses A and B travel along the same road in the same direction from Harper city (asume They both started from the same point) to Monrovia. if bus A maintains a Speedy of 60km/h and bus B a Speedy of 75km/h, how many
mohammed
hours Will it take bus B to overtake bus A assuming bus B starts One hour after bus A started. what is the distance travelled by the buses when They meet?.
mohammed
pls í need help
mohammed
4000 work is done
Ana
speed=distance /time distance=speed/time
Ana
now use this formula
Ana
what's the answer then
Julius
great Mudang
Kossi
please Ana explain 4000 ?
babar
hey mudang there is a product of force and acceleration not force and displacement
babar
@Mohammed answer is 0.8hours or 48mins
Douglas
nice
A.d
its not possible
Olalekan
í want the working procedure
mohammed
the answer is given but how Will One arrive at it. the answers are 4hours and 300m.
mohammed
physics is the science that studies the non living nature
isidor Reply
ancient greek language physis = nature
isidor
what is phyacs
technical Reply
if i am going to start studying physics where should i start?
BRIAN Reply
I think from kinematics
Nancy
You can find physics books at the library or online. That's how I started.
Chelsea
And yes, kinematics is usually where you can begin.
Chelsea
study basic algebra and calculus and can start from classical mechanics
Mudang
yes think so but dimension is the best starting point
Obed
3 formula's of equations of motion
benjamin Reply
vf=vi+at........1 s=vit+1/2(at)2 vf2=vi2+2as
Ana
solve the formula's please
benjamin
those are the three .. what you wanna solve ?
Nihrantz
For first equation simply integrate formula of acceleration in the limit v and u
Tripti
For second itegrate velocity formula by ising first equation
Tripti
similarly for 3 one integrate acceleration again by multiplying and dividing term ds
Tripti
any methods can take to solve this eqtions
a=vf-vi/t vf-vi=at vf=vi+at......1
Ana
suppose a body starts with an initial velocity vi and travels with uniform acceleration a for a period of time t.the distance covered by a body in this time is "s" and its final velocity becomes vf
Ana
what is the question dear
Zeeshan
average velocity=(vi+vf)/2 distance travelled=average velocity ×time therefore s=vi+vf/2×t from the first equation of motion ,we have vf =vi+at s=[vi+(vi+at)]/2×t s=(2vi+at)/2×t s=bit+1/2at2
Ana
find the distance
Ana
how
Zeeshan
Two speakers are arranged so that sound waves with the same frequency are produced and radiated through a room. An interference pattern is created. Calculate the distance between the two speakers?
Hayne Reply
How can we calculate without any information?
Amir
I think the formulae used for this question is lambda=(ax)/D
Amir
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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