<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Lingual luring

While garter snakes, Thamnophis spp , are much better known in terms of mimicry for often being sexual mimics, some have been found to perform an unusual form of aggressive mimicry known as lingual luring (Welsh&Lind 2000b). Lingual luring is very similar to caudal luring except an individual flicks its tongue against the water instead of waving its tail in the air or along the ground. Most other characteristics of the two are generally the same, and they are both used to mimic the snake’s prey’s prey. However, while caudal luring has been observed in some lizards, lingual luring has not to date. Lingual luring is distinguishable from normal tongue flicking by the position of the tongue and duration of flicking. Also the authors show that like caudal luring, lingual luring is almost exclusively done by juvenile snakes, not adults. Lingual luring is best known in a slightly different form used by alligator snapping turtles, Macrochelys temminckii , where the shape of the tongue mimics prey much like in caudal luring by snakes and lizards.

A chart of the amount of time spent by different aged snakes in luring prey into striking range.
Approximate median amount of time spent caudal luring by each age-gender group of pygmy rattlesnakes to lure prey into striking range. No caudal luring behavior was displayed by any adult snakes, male or female (Recreated from Rabatsky&Waterman 2005).

Competitive mimicry

In a 2007 paper, Meredith Rainey and Gregory Grether explained another possible classification of mimicry that is often left out of other mimicry classifications and research. They argued that competitive mimicry, or mimicking another species to gain access to resources over a competitor, should be included in these lists. According to the paper, there are three types of competitive mimicry : mimicking a non-competitor, mimicking the competitor itself, and mimicking a competitor’s predator (Rainey&Grether 2007b). Mimicking a non-competitor is said to be beneficial because a competitor will not see you as a threat and will either share the resource or can be surprise attacked for it. An example given is some surgeonfish mimic angelfish in order to not be attacked by damselfish when invading the damselfish’s territory. A possible reason to mimic a competitor is if the competitor uses display against its own species during disputes, but fights against other species. This would allow the mimic, win or lose, to avoid costly battles with the mimicked species. Due to the complex nature of this form of mimicry, natural examples are not perfectly clear. The reasons for mimicking a competitor’s predator are obvious in that the mimic can scare off the competitor without costly displays or battles. Burrowing owls can make a hissing sound that sounds very similar to rattlesnakes and has been shown to scare away rodents from burrows that were too large for the owls to easily kill themselves.

Most of the species that have been found to use caudal luring are terrestrial species, but some arboreal species have been shown to use this as well (Murphy, Carpenter,&Gillingham 1978). It has also been shown that many of the species that use caudal luring have tails that are a slightly different color or are brighter than the rest of their bodies, especially as juveniles. Caudal luring does come with a cost, though. Puerto Rican racers, Alsophis portoricensis , were found to have much more tail damage than is normally found in non-caudal luring species (Barun, Perry, Henderson,&Powell2007). This means that it is highly likely that many snakes are attacked by lured prey before successfully killing them. Also, it is highly possible that predation is higher in species with brightly colored tails used for caudal luring than it otherwise would be because the combination of bright color and conspicuous tail movement will make them easier to spot than similar species that don't perform caudal luring. Another possible form of aggressive mimicry in snakes is known as “lingual luring” (see [link] ).

Questions & Answers

what is the VA Ha D R X int Y int of f(x) =x²+4x+4/x+2 f(x) =x³-1/x-1
Shadow Reply
can I get help with this?
Are they two separate problems or are the two functions a system?
Also, is the first x squared in "x+4x+4"
thank you
Please see ***imgur.com/a/lpTpDZk for solutions
f(x)=x square-root 2 +2x+1 how to solve this value
Marjun Reply
factor or use quadratic formula
what is algebra
Ige Reply
The product of two is 32. Find a function that represents the sum of their squares.
if theta =30degree so COS2 theta = 1- 10 square theta upon 1 + tan squared theta
Martin Reply
how to compute this 1. g(1-x) 2. f(x-2) 3. g (-x-/5) 4. f (x)- g (x)
Yanah Reply
what sup friend
not much For functions, there are two conditions for a function to be the inverse function:   1--- g(f(x)) = x for all x in the domain of f     2---f(g(x)) = x for all x in the domain of g Notice in both cases you will get back to the  element that you started with, namely, x.
sin theta=3/4.prove that sec square theta barabar 1 + tan square theta by cosec square theta minus cos square theta
Umesh Reply
acha se dhek ke bata sin theta ke value
sin theta ke ja gha sin square theta hoga
I want to know trigonometry but I can't understand it anyone who can help
Siyabonga Reply
which part of trig?
differentiation doubhts
Prove that 4sin50-3tan 50=1
Sudip Reply
False statement so you cannot prove it
f(x)= 1 x    f(x)=1x  is shifted down 4 units and to the right 3 units.
Sebit Reply
f (x) = −3x + 5 and g (x) = x − 5 /−3
what are real numbers
Marty Reply
I want to know partial fraction Decomposition.
Adama Reply
classes of function in mathematics
Yazidu Reply
divide y2_8y2+5y2/y2
Sumanth Reply
wish i knew calculus to understand what's going on 🙂
Dashawn Reply
@dashawn ... in simple terms, a derivative is the tangent line of the function. which gives the rate of change at that instant. to calculate. given f(x)==ax^n. then f'(x)=n*ax^n-1 . hope that help.
thanks bro
maybe when i start calculus in a few months i won't be that lost 😎
what's the derivative of 4x^6
Axmed Reply
comment écrire les symboles de math par un clavier normal
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior' conversation and receive update notifications?