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I do plan to cover many of the remaining items in the list in Appendix A one or more times in this collection of modules but not necessarily in the order given.

This is a work in process, covering a wealth of knowledge, which I will be updating in upcoming months and possibly even years.

Text based vs. drag-and-drop vs. popup programming

Text-based programming

Historically, computer programs have been written by typing text on a computer keyboard, and that remains true even today for mainstream programming.That is what I mean when I refer to text-based programming.

However, in recent years, two alternative ways to create computer code have become popular:

  • Drag-and-drop programming
  • Popup programming

Drag-and-drop programming

As of May 2013, this form of programming is primarily used in environments that are designed for teaching programming concepts. Drag-and-drop programminghasn't yet made its way into mainstream programming. However, that may be about to change (see MIT App Inventor and Google blockly for example) .

The two primary players in the educational drag-and-drop programming field are Scratch and Alice , but they are not alone. Several other players are also on the scene (see Snap! and Tynker for example) .

The primary advantage of drag-and-drop programming is that it eliminates the requirement to memorize complex programming syntax and allows the programmer toconcentrate on the concepts. Most of the work is done by dragging visual images of blocks (containing program code) from a tool box and assembling them into a program. Very little keyboard work is required, which in turn greatly reducesthe likelihood of spelling and syntax errors.

Given the current popularity of touch screens and the disdain for keyboards, I see a bright future for drag-and-drop programming within the next ten years,even for large scale commercial applications. MIT App Inventor and blockly are leading the charge in that regard.

Popup programming is a supplement to text-based programming and is not intended for educational use. Instead, it is intended to make mainstreamprogrammers more productive by reducing the amount of typing required.

Many different forms exist, but they generally take on the form of a popup menu that appears at certain critical times to allow the programmer to selectcode from a menu as an alternative to typing the code.

One form of popup programming is code completion . With code completion, the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) examines the first few characters typed by the programmer and makes an educated guess as to theremaining required characters, which the programmer can either accept or reject.


I suspect that the all time most successful self-study programming environment for beginners is Scratch . This is probably the result of three factors:

  • Scratch makes it easy to get started programming
  • Scratch is engaging for today's fast-paced multimedia generation
  • Scratch provides a monitored online social network that allows interaction among beginners with a commoninterest.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Teaching beginners to code. OpenStax CNX. May 27, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11498/1.20
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