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Such quantitative survey instruments for assessing organizational culture are readily available, e.g.,Kilmann and Saxton’s Culture Gap Survey (1991). However, these instruments tend to be superficial and are incapable of probing thedepth and uniqueness of an organization’s culture. As Rousseau (1990) commented, the uniqueness of each organization’s culture prevents outsiders from forming valid a priori questions. Schein(1984) further noted that using surveys to assess culture violates ethical research procedures in that it puts words into the mouths of respondents rather than captures their own words. Also, suchinstruments summarize and aggregate responses, possibly misrepresenting the respondents’true views.

Because organizational culture is a multi-layered phenomenon, different data gathering approaches maybe necessary to assess the various layers. Rousseau (1990) identified five basic layers of organizational culture, proceedingfrom the most superficial and observable to the most profound, yet least revealed or discussed. These layers were: (a) artifacts, (b)patterns of behavior, (c) behavioral norms, (d) values, and (e) fundamental assumptions. Connor and Lake (1988) discussed the sameconcepts but classified culture into three layers, rather than five.

At its shallowest levels, school culture is open to assessment by observation of behaviors and interactions,listening to stories, participating in rituals, and examining artifacts and written communications. To understand the sharedvalues, common understandings, and patterns of expectations, it is necessary to probe more deeply and into subconscious areas byexamining the authentic responses of organization members. Rousseau (1990) and Schein (1999) advocated the use of structured interviewsto gather these data. Schein noted that small group interviews are both more valid and efficient than individual interviews. However,to get at the deepest levels of shared culture, assumptions and beliefs, intensive individual interviews are probably the mostappropriate approach.

As with all qualitative research, it is essential that organizational leaders set aside their ownconceptions and values as they attempt to discern the shared values and beliefs of others in the organization (Rousseau, 1990; Schein,1999). However, the leader’s observations of behaviors and artifacts can legitimately provide the initial entry point thatleads to a deeper investigation of the underlying shared values, norms, beliefs, and assumptions.

With these definitions of organizational climate and culture and some insight into how to assess theseconstructs, the leader’s next challenge is to forecast how the school’s culture and climate will interact with the school improvement process. The section that follows explores variouspossible patterns of interaction.

Interaction of School Climate and Culture with the School Improvement Process

A school’s culture and climate can interact with the school improvement process in many ways and in all phasesof that improvement process. Figure 1 illustrates a typical school improvement process, which progresses from a planning phase toimplementation, and eventually to institutionalization of the desired changes. As Beach and Lindahl (2004b) discussed, inreality, school improvement processes are not as linear as diagrams such as Figure 1 suggest. However, the basic phases of the modeloffer a useful structure for examining potential interactions between the process and the school’s climate and culture.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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