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Organizational culture embraces such organizational needs as common language, shared concepts, definedorganizational boundaries, methods for selecting members for the organization, methods of allocating authority, power, status, andresources, norms for handling intimacy and interpersonal relationships, criteria for rewards and punishments, and ways ofcoping with unpredictable and stressful events (Schein, 1985a). This shared culture helps to create solidarity and meaning andinspire commitment and productivity (Deal, 1985).

Culture may operate both consciously and sub-consciously in the organization (Rousseau, 1990; Schein, 1984,1985a, 1985b; Wilkins&Patterson, 1985). At the surface level, culture can be observed through examination of behaviors andartifacts, including such things as the physical setting, rituals, languages, and stories. At a slightly deeper, less conscious level,organizational culture is defined by the unwritten rules and norms of behavior, often conveyed by stories, rituals, language, andsymbols. At the deepest levels, often totally sub-conscious, lie such things as the fundamental assumptions and core values ofindividuals, groups, and the organization (Connor&Lake, 1988). It is at this deepest level that the organizational culturecan be most tenacious and most powerful (Wilkins&Patterson, 1985).

Culture is experienced differently by members of the organization (Rousseau, 1990). Sub-cultures may arise withinan organization as small groups share values, perceptions, norms, or even ceremonies that differ from those of the wider organization(Cooper, 1988; Louis, 1985; Thompson&Luthans, 1990). For example, in many high schools, coaches of male athletic teams forma sub-culture within the faculty; they typically sit together at faculty meetings, generally at the back of the room. They oftenmiss faculty meetings and are unable to participate in general faculty activities due to their coaching obligations immediatelyafter school. They can often be observed commenting and joking among themselves at times when other faculty members are moreattentively engaged with the content of the faculty meeting. Similarly, new faculty members may form a sub-culture somewhatdistinct from those who have been in the school for a prolonged period of time.

Culture is also contextually influenced. It is the interaction of an organization’s people variables with physical and structural (ecological) variables (Hall&Hord, 2001). For example, many high schools are built in a design in which hallwaysradiate from a central hub; in these schools, it is very common for the teachers in each hallway to build a culture slightly differentfrom the culture of teachers in hallways with whom they have less personal contact. School culture can be influenced by such physical surrounding variables as noise, heat, and light (Thompson&Luthans, 1990). The open classroom designs popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s promoted more sharing and contact amongteachers than fully-walled individual classrooms. Learning cultures among students in the Southern and Southwestern United States havechanged significantly with the addition of air conditioning to classrooms.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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