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Case studies of scientists and their “experimental methods”

Francis Bacon (1561-1626): Bacon represents a first step away from sixteenth century thinking, in that he deniedthe validity of empiricism (see introduction) and preferred inductive reasoning (the method of deriving a general “truth” fromobservation of certain similar facts and principles) to the Aristotelian method of deductive reasoning (the method of usinggeneral principles to explain a specific instance, where the particular phenomena is explained through its relation to a“universal truth”). Moreover, like Roger Bacon of the 13th century, Francis Bacon argued that the use of empiricism alone isinsufficient, and thus emphasized the necessity of fact-gathering as a first step in the scientific method, which could then befollowed by carefully recorded and controlled (unbiased) experimentation. Bacon largely differed from his sixteenth centurycounterparts in his insistence that experimentation should not be conducted to simply “see what happens” but “as a way of answeringspecific questions.” Moreover, he believed, as did many of his contemporaries, that a main purpose of science was the bettermentof human society and that experimentation should be applied to hard, real situations rather than to Aristotelian abstract ideas.His experimental method of fact-gathering largely influenced advances in chemistry and biology through the 18th century.

3Hall, p 166, 167

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): Galileo’s experimental method contrasted with that of Bacon in that hebelieved that the purpose of experimentation should not simply be a means of getting information or of eliminating ignorance, but ameans of testing a theory and of testing the success of the very “testing method.” Galileo argued that phenomena should beinterpreted mechanically, meaning that because every phenomenon results from a combination of the most basic phenomena anduniversal axioms, if one applies the many proven theorems to the larger phenomenon, one can accurately explain why a certainphenomenon occurs the way it does. In other words, he argued that “an explanation of a scientific problem is truly begun when it isreduced to its basic terms of matter and motion,” because only the most basic events occur because of one axiom.

For example, one can demonstrate the concept of “acceleration” in the laboratory with a ball and a slantedboard, but to fullyexplain the idea using Galileo’s reasoning, one would have to utilize the concepts of many different disciplines:the physics-based concepts of time and distance, the idea of gravity, force, and mass, or even the chemical composition of theelement that is accelerating, all of which must be individually broken down to their smallest elements in order for a scientist tofully understand the item as a whole. This “mechanic” or “systemic” approach, while necessitating a mixture of elements from differentdisciplines, also partially removed the burden of fact-gathering emphasized by Bacon. In other words, through Galileo’s method, onewould not observe the phenomenon as a whole, but rather as a construct or system of many existing principles that must be testedtogether, and so gathering facts about the performance of the phenomenon in one situation may not truly lead to an informedobservation of how the phenomenon would occur in a perfect circumstance, when all laws of matter and motion come into play.Galileo’s abstraction of everything concerning the phenomenon except the universal element (e.g. matter or motion) contrastedgreatly with Bacon’s inductive reasoning, but also influenced the work of Descartes, who would later emphasize the importance ofsimplification of phenomena in mathematical terms. Galileo’s experimental method aided advances in chemistry and biology byallowing biologists to explain the work of a muscle or any body function using existing ideas of motion, matter, energy, and otherbasic principles.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanotechnology: content and context. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10418/1.1
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