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Css box model

W3C box model
The W3C standard box model

How to position elements

(External Link)

The default is that elements are positioned static . This means that the element is not positioned in special way. It is in the normal flow of elements.

Use of relative position.


A validator checks if a CSS file contains no erroneous CSS selectors and rules. W3C validator

Css 3

CSS3 (CSS level 3) builds on CSS level 2. Unlike CSS2 which is a single specification document CSS3 is devided into several separate recommendations documents. They are called "modules". See table of specifications of the W3C.

News about the implementation of the new features css3.info . Web site which tests CSS3 implementation in browsers.

Interactive construction of CSS3 code (e.g. rounded corners, shadow, etc) css3please.com



There is an add-on called Firebug to the Firefox web browser which helps to debug CSS style sheets. It helps as well to learn about CSS (External Link) .

InternetExplorer 8, 9 and 10 give access to developer tools (Manual) through the F12 key.

Css versus xsl

Why does W3C recommend two different style languages? Which one should you use? Basically, the rule can be summarized very succinctly: Use CSS when you can, use XSL when you must. (External Link)

Css in mobile devices

CSS mobile (current status) aims at describing a subset of CSS useful for mobile devices.

Media queries

CSS media queries (W3C spec) allow that style rules are only applied to specific output media, i.e. screen, print, handheld or other. They can as well depend on conditions like display width. The following example demonstrates the idea

@media (max-width: 320px) { /* rules for mobile devices go here */} @media (min-width: 321px) {/* rules for devices with larger screens go here */ }

More about media queries; collection of example sites

Use of media queries to implement a responsive navigation, i.e. a navigation which works on desktop or laptop computers where there is a cursor and on touch devices (mobile phones, tablets).


A CSS framework is one or more CSS files which include style declarations on which you can build by either extending or replacing them. The aim is that you do can rely on ready-made designs and do not need to create workarounds for the browser inconsistencies.

Skeleton : Responsive boilerplate

Bootstrap Bootstrap is a popular HTML, CSS, and JS framework for developing responsive projects.

(External Link) -- a set of small, responsive CSS modules; see also (External Link) (Scalable and Modular Architecture for CSS).

Web fonts

Current browsers may load fonts front the web ( @font-face property) and thus support the font part of CSS 3 .

Google font service

Google provides a service from which you can choose free fonts. It generates some code which you can add to your website. They as well provide a font API and host a repository with free fonts. So you might add the Gentium font by adding an import rule at the beginning of your style sheet

@import url(http://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Gentium+Basic&subset=latin,latin-ext);

But you may as well copy a free font to a directory of your own website and serve it from there. For an example of loading a font see below. Gentium is a free font under the Open Font License (OFL).

@font-face { font-family: Gentium;src: url(http://yoursite/fonts/Gentium.ttf); }p { font-family: Gentium, serif; }

Xhtml plus css to pdf

Further reading

Useful coding techniques

W3C CSS Test Harness

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Test collection revision. OpenStax CNX. May 02, 2012 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11421/1.1
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