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Today the responsibility lies on the Intellectuals and Scientists of Third World Countries to chalk out an alternative paradigm of development whereby there is equitable and just development of all geographical regions of our Globe.

Our readers must be anxious to know as to what are those four discoveries and Inventions for which Indian scientists are credited?

First is the fundamental work of Ramanujam on number theory and higher Mathematics [Appendix I]. Second is the work of Meghnath Saha (1893 -1956) on heat and molecular Physics. His ionization equation, Saha-Langmuir Equation, plays an important role in stellar astro-physcics [Appendix II].Third is the discovery of Bose-Einstein Statistics and the discovery of Bosons by Satyendra Nath Bose [Appendix III ] .Fourth is the discovery of Raman Effect by C.V. Raman [Appendix IV]. This fetched us a Nobel Prize.

Fifth is the extensive entomological work done on Mosquitoes by Ronald Ross [Appendix V ] .This also fetched a Nobel Award.

Sixth is the work done by G.N. Ramchandran (1922-2001) on molecular Biophysics. He is considered the father of this field[Appendix VI]. After Independence our five major achievements have been in the area of green revolution, space research, nuclear energy, super- conductivity and CSIR (Council of Scientific and Indistrial Research) into a locomotive of Science and Technology advancements.Here we befittingly mention the works done by Indian Scientists working abroad notably in USA. First is the discovery of Chandrshekher Limit S. Chandra Shekher in the area of Evolution of Main Sequence Stars[Appendix VII]. Second is the work of Har Gobind Khurana(1922- till date) in the field of genetics and its function in protein synthesis[Appendix VIII].

Third is the work done again in Genetics by Venktaraman Ramakrishna. Therte are DNA molecules inside every cell of all organisms. These molecules contain the blue-print for how a human being or a plant or a bacterium looks and functions. The blue prints of the DNA molecules become transformed in the living matter through the ribosomes. Based upon the information in DNA , ribosomes create protein: oxygen transporting haemoglobins, antibodies of the immune system, hormones succh as insulin, collagen of the skin, or enzymes. There are tens of thousands of protein in the body and they all have different forms and functions. 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry Awards Research in one of life's most important processes: the ribosomes translation of DNA information into life [Appendix IX]. Here it will be appropriate to mention invention of Wireles by Jagdish Chandra Bose [Appendix X]. Though credit was accorded to Marconi, lately the mistalke has been corrected and in 1997 IEEE (Institution of Electronics and Electrical Engineering) has acknowledged the pioneering role of Dr. Jagdish Chandra Bose in the field of Wireless and Radio.After this digression we return to our main concern namely Solid State Physics and Devices.

The present development and widespread use of Electronics in every walk of life is primarily due to Integrated Circuit Technology and due to the continuous evolution of the level of Integration as stated by Moore’s Law. Gordon Moore [Appendix XI] is a founder of Intel Corporation which caters to 80% of microprocessors market.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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