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In all these stages and in all these civilizations ,we were dependent on empirical knowledge. We observed ,we learnt and we used it. We never tried to theorize.

In Greek Era, for the first time why, how and whereof questions were raised regarding events, processes and systems. Socrates played the most crucial role in questioning the prevailing dogmas.

In the Greek Era, the prevailing World View was the Ptolemaic World View where our Earth was at the centre of the Universe known as Geo-centric Model and where heart was at the centre of the Human Body known as Cardio-centric Model .

The Greek Era was followed by the Roman Era. King Constantine in 300AD proclaimed Christanity as the State Religion and almost whole of Europe gradually converted to Christanity. On the other hand in 600AD in Arab countries there was the dawn of Islam and Prophet Muhammad was proclaimed 40th Prophet and the last Prophet. Islam spread to whole of Europe where a new resistance started against the spread of Islam in form of Christian Crusades. By 1200AD crusaders managed to push back the Islamic forces back to Arabian Peninsula. Until 15th century Europe remained divided. During this period barbarian Goths, Vandals and Huns swept down on Europe from North and East. They destroyed many fine buildings and works of art that had existed during Roman times. This period was referred to as the dark ages of Medieval Era.During this period knowledge survived only in Monastaries. Progress in Science and Technology came to a stand still.. Whole of Europe was plunged in the dark ages of the Early Medieval Era.

14 th Century saw the dawn of the Age of Reasoning. This was the Age of Voltaire.

14 th Century also saw the Gutenberg Revolution, the second Information Revolution.***. This century witnessed the Protestant Movement and subsequent rise of Martin Luther as the most significant dissident within the Christian Religion.

The Protestant Movement signaled the Age of Renaissance. The Industrial Revolution of 18 th Century catalyzed the Bourgeoisie Democratic Revolution which swept through Europe, USA and Japan. This Revolutionary Movement overthrew the Monarchies and Oligarchies and established the rule of Pluralistic Democracy in the leadership of Bourgeoisie Party. In France this Party was known as Jacobins, in USA it was known as Democratic Party, in Germany it was under the leadership of Junkers and in Japan it was under the leadership of Meiji Oligarchs.

[* Benjamin Franklin made a systematic and scientific investigation of lightening during the second half of 18 th Century through his legendary ‘Key and Kite’experiment. In a Pennsylvania thunderstorm in 1752, he flew a kite with a key tied to the string just beside the kite. The electric charges induced on the thunderclouds were attracted by the key and provided a short circuit path to the ground through the body of Franklin. In the process he received electric shocks which could have proved fatal. But this electric shock established the nature of electricity as well as the charge of electricity which in this case was negative. Thus electricity’s discovery was made and this was to play the same role in human society as the discovery of fire was to play in the hominid society when hominid society was fruit and root gatherer as well as scavenger about a million years before.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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