# Simple machine elements

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The simple mechanical elements that comprise complex machines, like robots, are described.

Complex machines are made up of moving parts such as levers, gears, cams, cranks, springs, belts, andwheels. Machines deliver a certain type of movement to a desired location from an input force applied somewhere else. Somemachines simply convert one type of motion to another type, such as rotary to linear. While there is a seemingly endless varietyof machines, they are all based upon simple machine elements. The elements discussed here include inclined planes, levers, wheels and axles,pulleys, and screws.

It is important to remember that all machines are limited in their efficiency by friction. No machine is 100 percent efficientin its efforts, so the mechanical advantage gained will require additional energy to accomplish the task. For more information on friction, see this module

## The inclined plane

An inclined plane decreases the force required to raise an object a given height byincreasing the distance over which that force must be applied, see . Imagine lifting something twice your weight to a 4 foot high shelf. Now imagine rolling the same mass up a gentlysloping surface. The latter would be much easier. Inclined planes are commonly put to use in cutting devices and oftentwo inclined planes are put back to back to form a wedge. In a wedge, forward movement is converted into a parting movementacting perpendicular to the face of the blade. A zipper is simply a combination of two lower wedges for closing and an upper wedge for opening, as shown in .

## The screw

The screw is basically an inclined plane (see ) wrapped around a cylinder. In an inclined plane, a linear force in thehorizontal plane is converted to a vertical "lifting" force. With a screw, a rotary force in the horizontal plane isconverted to a vertical "lifting" force.

When a wood screw is turned, the threads of the screw push up on the wood. A reaction force from the woodpushes back down on the screw threads and in this way the screw moves down even though the force of turning the screw isin the horizontal plane. Screws are known for high friction, which is why they are used to hold things together. A worm gear is sometimes used in machines, but they also have high friction that can waste considerable power.

## Levers

A lever has three points of interest: the fulcrum, the load, and the effort applied to the lever. The fulcrum is the point around which the lever pivots rotationally. The load is what we wish to manipulate with the lever, and the load is described by its position relative to the fulcrum, and the force (magnitude and direction) it exerts at that point.The effort is also a force that has a magnitude and a direction, and a position with respect to the fulcrum. A leveris used to change the direction of movement, and to trade the magnitude of the effort for the distance over whichthe effort is applied.

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
a perfect square v²+2v+_
kkk nice
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
is it 3×y ?
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
im not good at math so would this help me
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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