# Simple machine elements

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The simple mechanical elements that comprise complex machines, like robots, are described.

Complex machines are made up of moving parts such as levers, gears, cams, cranks, springs, belts, andwheels. Machines deliver a certain type of movement to a desired location from an input force applied somewhere else. Somemachines simply convert one type of motion to another type, such as rotary to linear. While there is a seemingly endless varietyof machines, they are all based upon simple machine elements. The elements discussed here include inclined planes, levers, wheels and axles,pulleys, and screws.

It is important to remember that all machines are limited in their efficiency by friction. No machine is 100 percent efficientin its efforts, so the mechanical advantage gained will require additional energy to accomplish the task. For more information on friction, see this module

## The inclined plane

An inclined plane decreases the force required to raise an object a given height byincreasing the distance over which that force must be applied, see . Imagine lifting something twice your weight to a 4 foot high shelf. Now imagine rolling the same mass up a gentlysloping surface. The latter would be much easier. Inclined planes are commonly put to use in cutting devices and oftentwo inclined planes are put back to back to form a wedge. In a wedge, forward movement is converted into a parting movementacting perpendicular to the face of the blade. A zipper is simply a combination of two lower wedges for closing and an upper wedge for opening, as shown in .

## The screw

The screw is basically an inclined plane (see ) wrapped around a cylinder. In an inclined plane, a linear force in thehorizontal plane is converted to a vertical "lifting" force. With a screw, a rotary force in the horizontal plane isconverted to a vertical "lifting" force.

When a wood screw is turned, the threads of the screw push up on the wood. A reaction force from the woodpushes back down on the screw threads and in this way the screw moves down even though the force of turning the screw isin the horizontal plane. Screws are known for high friction, which is why they are used to hold things together. A worm gear is sometimes used in machines, but they also have high friction that can waste considerable power.

## Levers

A lever has three points of interest: the fulcrum, the load, and the effort applied to the lever. The fulcrum is the point around which the lever pivots rotationally. The load is what we wish to manipulate with the lever, and the load is described by its position relative to the fulcrum, and the force (magnitude and direction) it exerts at that point.The effort is also a force that has a magnitude and a direction, and a position with respect to the fulcrum. A leveris used to change the direction of movement, and to trade the magnitude of the effort for the distance over whichthe effort is applied.

what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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