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This module serves as the introductory module for the Open Education Cup contest (http://OpenEducationCup.org) collaborative book. This introduction outlines the primary focus of the contest and provides examples to help authors get started with their contest entries.

What is parallel computing, and why should i care?

Parallel computing simply means using more than one computer processor to solve a problem. Classically, computers have been presented to newcomers as “sequential” systems, where the processor does one step at a time. There are still machines and applications where this is true, but today most systems have parallel features. Some examples are shown below.
We hasten to point out that, although we use certain commercial systems and chips as examples, they are by no means the only ones. Additional examples in all categories are available from other companies. The Open Education Cup would welcome modules on any type of parallel system.

Supercomputers achieve astounding speed on scientific computations by using amazing numbers of processors. The Roadrunner system at Los Alamos National Laboratory ( ) is currently the world’s fastest computer, with over 100,000 processor cores combining to reach 1 PetaFLOPS ( 10 15 floating point operations per second).

Servers use multiple processors to handle many simultaneous requests in a timely manner. For example, a web server might use dozens of processors to supply hundreds of pages per second. A 64-processor server ( ) could supply an average university department’s need for computation, file systems, and other support.

Grid computing combines distributed computers (often from different organizations) into one unified system. One vision ( ) is that a scientist working at her desk in Houston can send a problem to be solved by supercomputers in Illinois and California, accessing data in other locations. Other grid computing projects, such as the World Community Grid, seek to use millions of idle PCs to solve important problems, such as searching for candidate drug designs.

Multicore chips include several processor cores on a single computer chip. Even a laptop (or other small system) that uses a multicore chip is a parallel computer. For example, the Quad-core AMD Opteron processor ( ) is one of a family of chips with 4 cores. As another example, the IBM Cell processor chips used in the Roadrunner supercomputer have 8 “Synergistic Processing Elements” (i.e. fast cores) each, plus 1 Power Processing Element (which controls the others).

Graphics processors (often called GPUs) are a special type of chip originally designed for image processing. They feature massive numbers of scalar processors to allow rendering many pixels in parallel. For example, The NVIDIA Tesla series ( ) boasts 240 processors. Such special-purpose parallel chips are the basis for accelerated computing.

In effect, all modern computing is parallel computing.

Getting the most out of a parallel computer requires finding and exploiting opportunities to do several things at once. Some examples of such opportunities in realistic computer applications might include:

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, 2008-'09 open education cup: high performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Oct 28, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10594/1.3
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