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Picture story is widely used with more advantages than disadvantages. Before performing the test task, the test taker is given a picture or a sequence of pictures to look at. Then the test taker describes the picture(s) or story freely before being asked questions related to the story. This technique includes using several similar pictures, ordering pictures to create a picture story, using live action, and vocabulary naming from pictures. (Underhill, 1987, p. 66-69)

Role-play technique involves two people, each of whom takes on a particular role in a given particular situation. A few minutes just before the test the test taker(s) is given a set of written instructions to get prepared, and then he carries out his role in the given situation. This technique can be used between an assessor and a student, and between students. (Underhill, 1987, p. 51-52)

2.4.2.3 tests where the learner prepares in advance

Tests of this type give the test taker a sufficient amount time to prepare the task. The preparation time will range from a few minutes for a blank dialogue to several hours or days for a presentation. (Underhill, 1987, p. 33)

The underlying techniques may be oral report, reading blank dialogue, and re-telling a story.

Oral report technique requires the learner to give an oral presentation on a given topic lasting from five to ten minutes. He or she can refer to the notes, but reading aloud is strongly discouraged. The use of such aids as an overhead projector, a board or flipchart diagrams is encouraged if appropriate. At the end of the presentation, the test taker has to answer all the questions raised by the tester. This technique can be applied by making a mini-presentation with limited preparation time, and by identifying a topic of personal interest at a previous stage. (Underhill, 1987, p. 47-49)

Reading blank dialogue is used in the test context in which the learner is provided a dialogue with only one part written in and prepares the missing lines in a few minutes. The interviewer reads through the given lines and the test taker fills in the blanks aloud. (Underhill, 1987, p. 64-66)

Re-telling a story technique requires the test taker to re-tell a story in his own words after reading it. The test taker is not allowed to refer back to the written text once he has begun to re-tell it. This can be carried out by using notes, using a set text, and using an unseen text. (Underhill, 1987, p. 73-75)

2.4.2.4 mechanical/entirely predictable tests

Mechanical-type tests determine in advance what the test taker is expected to say, for there is always a single correct answer. This complete predictability makes such tests unauthentic and non-communicative. Hence, they cannot be used to measure the test taker’s oral fluency but to measure grammatical knowledge or the mechanical aspects of speech such as pronunciation, stress and intonation patterns. (Underhill, 1987, p. 33)

Tests of this type encompass such elicitation techniques as reading aloud, sentence transformation, sentence repetition, translating/interpreting, sentence completion, and sentence correction.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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