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Underhill (1987) classifies oral tests/test tasks into four main types: (1) the direct interview type, (2) the pre-arranged information gap tests, (3) tests where the learner prepares in advance, and (4) mechanical/entirely predictable tests. Each type requires some specific techniques to elicit test takers’ language performance named elicitation techniques. The four following sub-sections respectively summarize these four oral test types in combination with the involved elicitation techniques

2.4.2.1 the direct interview type

The direct interview is the most common and authentic type of oral test; there is no script and no preparation on the test taker’s part. The assessor or interviewer, of course, has quite a careful preparation, but not so rigid as to control exactly what the test taker says. This may result in difficulty in assessing the test performance consistently and reliably. (Underhill, 1987, p. 31)

The assessors should be flexible in choosing suitable and feasible techniques to well elicit the task of this type in a specific testing situation. The most common elicitation techniques used in this case are discussion/conversation, interview, form-filling and question and answer.

Discussion/conversation is associated with interaction between two or more people in which the assessor should create the right atmosphere in a very short time so that the test taker can respond to it. The topics discussed and the directions taken by the conversation are the result of this interaction. (Underhill, 1987, p. 45)

Interview, to some extent, is quite similar to discussion/conversation, but an interview is structured. That is to say, the assessor or interviewer maintains firm control and keeps the initiative; whatever the test taker says is in more or less response to the interviewer’s questions or statements. (Underhill, 1987, p. 54-56)

Form-filling is a technique in which the test taker and interviewer work together to fill in a form or questionaire. The questions is usually related to the test taker’s personal details, professional situation or language needs. Question and answer refers to a set of disconnected questions raised by the tester. The questions are graded according to difficulty to elicit the test taker’s opinions on certain topics. This technique may involve using different question types, giving cues for question formation, and naming. (Underhill, 1987, p. 58-59)

2.4.2.2 the pre-arranged information gap tests

In such tests, an information gap between two test takers, or between a test taker and the assessor, is deliberately created by the test designer. The test taker’s success and speed in bridging that gap are taken as an indication of his oral proficiency. (Underhill, 1987, p. 32)

The elicitation techniques proposed for this type of oral test are learner-learner description and re-creation, picture story and role-play.

Learner-learner description and re-creation technique requires one test taker to describe a design or construction of model building materials to another test taker who has to reconstruct the model from the description alone, without seeing the original. The technique consists of reporting description to partner, map-reading, and comparing models. (Underhill, 1987, p. 56-58)

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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