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The differences in chemical shift labeled J are known as the coupling constant. If two nuclei are coupled to each other, the coupling constants will be the same. For example, in the case of 1,1-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethane, the two peaks that make up the doublet due to the CCl 2 size 12{ ital "CCl" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} will be exactly split the same distance as the two peaks that make up the doublet due to the CBr 2 size 12{ ital "CBr" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} group. In a complex spectrum, this allows us to identify which peaks are coupled to each other. Peaks that are coupled to each other will most likely arise because the H atoms are on adjacent (or nearby) carbon atoms.

We need to consider a couple of other cases in order to have enough information on coupling patterns to understand common problems. There are cases where there is more than one proton on adjacent carbon atoms.

Let us first consider the case where one or more protons on one carbon atom (let's call it Carbon A) "see" two identical protons on a neighboring carbon atom (called Carbon B). What types of magnetic fields will be seen by the protons on Carbon A? To sort this out, we need to consider the different possible spin combinations of the protons on Carbon B. This is done purely by probability. There are four possibilities:

These can be described by the spin numbers: (+1/2, +1/2), (+1/2, -1/2), (-1/2, +1/2), (-1/2, -1/2). It should be easy to see that the energies of the two combinations (+1/2, -1/2) and (-1/2, +1/2) will be equal. We can order these possibilities according to their expected energies in the presence of a strong external field:

The splitting of the protons on Carbon A will be into three signals in a 1:2:1 ratio, the 2 arising because that energy level is twice as probable.

The case for three protons on an adjacent carbon atom is worked out in a similar fashion. Again, the splitting seen by the protons on Carbon A attached to Carbon B (a methyl group) would be as follows:

There are 8 possible combinations of spin states which divide into a 1:3:3:1 ratio. Either all spins are up, two up and one down, two down and one up, or all up. A proton or protons on one carbon atom adjacent to a methyl group will, therefore, split into a quartet with area ratios of 1:3:3:1.

Ethyl

If we have a CH 3 CH 2 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} group, as in chloroethane, we would expect to see two peaks in a ratio of 3:2. The methyl group signal will be split into a triplet (with relative areas of 1:2:1) by coupling to the methylene protons. The methylene protons are split into a quartet (with relative areas of 1:3:3:1) by coupling to the methyl protons. Therefore, we expect the spectrum of an ethyl group to look something like…

***SORRY, THIS MEDIA TYPE IS NOT SUPPORTED.***

Notice that the chemical shift of a peak split by coupling is defined as the center of the peak pattern. As mentioned earlier, the distance between the peaks of the CH 3 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} group (the coupling constant) will be the same as the distance between the peaks of the CH 2 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} group. Also note that the total intensity of the peaks due to the CH 3 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} group is 1.5 times the size of the total intensity for the peaks of the CH 2 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} group.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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Cied
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abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
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Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
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Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Chem 215 spring08. OpenStax CNX. Mar 21, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10496/1.8
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