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The differences in chemical shift labeled J are known as the coupling constant. If two nuclei are coupled to each other, the coupling constants will be the same. For example, in the case of 1,1-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethane, the two peaks that make up the doublet due to the CCl 2 size 12{ ital "CCl" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} will be exactly split the same distance as the two peaks that make up the doublet due to the CBr 2 size 12{ ital "CBr" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} group. In a complex spectrum, this allows us to identify which peaks are coupled to each other. Peaks that are coupled to each other will most likely arise because the H atoms are on adjacent (or nearby) carbon atoms.

We need to consider a couple of other cases in order to have enough information on coupling patterns to understand common problems. There are cases where there is more than one proton on adjacent carbon atoms.

Let us first consider the case where one or more protons on one carbon atom (let's call it Carbon A) "see" two identical protons on a neighboring carbon atom (called Carbon B). What types of magnetic fields will be seen by the protons on Carbon A? To sort this out, we need to consider the different possible spin combinations of the protons on Carbon B. This is done purely by probability. There are four possibilities:

These can be described by the spin numbers: (+1/2, +1/2), (+1/2, -1/2), (-1/2, +1/2), (-1/2, -1/2). It should be easy to see that the energies of the two combinations (+1/2, -1/2) and (-1/2, +1/2) will be equal. We can order these possibilities according to their expected energies in the presence of a strong external field:

The splitting of the protons on Carbon A will be into three signals in a 1:2:1 ratio, the 2 arising because that energy level is twice as probable.

The case for three protons on an adjacent carbon atom is worked out in a similar fashion. Again, the splitting seen by the protons on Carbon A attached to Carbon B (a methyl group) would be as follows:

There are 8 possible combinations of spin states which divide into a 1:3:3:1 ratio. Either all spins are up, two up and one down, two down and one up, or all up. A proton or protons on one carbon atom adjacent to a methyl group will, therefore, split into a quartet with area ratios of 1:3:3:1.

Ethyl

If we have a CH 3 CH 2 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} group, as in chloroethane, we would expect to see two peaks in a ratio of 3:2. The methyl group signal will be split into a triplet (with relative areas of 1:2:1) by coupling to the methylene protons. The methylene protons are split into a quartet (with relative areas of 1:3:3:1) by coupling to the methyl protons. Therefore, we expect the spectrum of an ethyl group to look something like…

***SORRY, THIS MEDIA TYPE IS NOT SUPPORTED.***

Notice that the chemical shift of a peak split by coupling is defined as the center of the peak pattern. As mentioned earlier, the distance between the peaks of the CH 3 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} group (the coupling constant) will be the same as the distance between the peaks of the CH 2 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} group. Also note that the total intensity of the peaks due to the CH 3 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } } {} group is 1.5 times the size of the total intensity for the peaks of the CH 2 size 12{ ital "CH" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} group.

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chem 215 spring08. OpenStax CNX. Mar 21, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10496/1.8
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