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__ FeCl 3 + __ FeCl 2 + __ NH 3 + + __ H 2 O __ Fe 3 O 4 + __ NH 4 Cl size 12{"__" ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{3} } +"__" ital "FeCl" rSub { size 8{2} } +"__" ital "NH" rSub { size 8{3} } rSup { size 8{+{}} } +"__"H rSub { size 8{2} } O rightarrow "__" ital "Fe" rSub { size 8{3} } O rSub { size 8{4} } +"__" ital "NH" rSub { size 8{4} } ital "Cl"} {}

The surfactant used in this synthesis is tetramethylammonium hydroxide ( N ( CH 3 ) 4 OH size 12{N \( ital "CH" rSub { size 8{3} } \) rSub { size 8{4} } ital "OH"} {} ). The hydroxide ( OH size 12{ ital "OH" rSup { size 8{ - {}} } } {} ) ions formed in solution tend to bind to the iron sites on the magnetite particles, creating a net negative charge on each particle. The positively-charged tetramethylammonium ions will then associate with the negatively-charged magnetite particles, forming a kind of shell around each magnetite particle. This charged shell raises the energy required for the particles to agglomerate, stabilizing the suspension.

With the help of nanotechnology, liquid crystal displays have become very popular in recent years. Liquid crystal displays (LCD) were first produced by RCA in 1971 and are composed of two glass plates with a liquid crystal material between them. The liquid crystal material is an organic compound that is in a state between a liquid and a solid. Their viscosities are similar to those of liquids and their light scattering and reflection properties are similar to solid crystals. Liquid crystals must be geometrically highly

anisotropic (having different optical properties in different directions)-usually long and narrow -but also become an isotropic liquid (same optical properties in all directions) through a stimulus such as a magnetic field, electric field, temperature, or pressure.

Liquid crystals have several common phases. The simplest liquid crystal phase is called the nematic phase where the molecules spontaneously order with long axes roughly parallel. It is characterized by a high degree of long range orientational order but no translational order. An uniformly aligned nematic has a preferred direction, often described in terms of a unit vector called the director. The type of phase that a liquid crystal possesses ultimately determines its applications.

Is it really necessary to describe the smetic phase? Many of the students were confused by this.l

Figure 2 Nematic, smectic-A, and smectic-C liquid crystal phases

A subclass of nematic phases that will be investigated in this lab due to its pressure and temperature sensitive properties is the cholestric phase. The distance over which the director rotates to equal 360°is referred to as the chiral pitch and is normally on the order of a few hundred nanometers, or precisely the wavelength of visible light. This allows liquid crystals to selectively reflect light of wavelengths equal to the pitch length, so that a color will be reflected when the pitch is equal to the corresponding wavelength of light in the visible spectrum. Changes in the director orientation between successive layers modifies the pitch length resulting in an alteration of the wavelength of reflected light according to the temperature. The angle at which the director changes can be made larger, and thus tighten the pitch, by increasing the temperature of the molecules, hence giving them more thermal energy. Similarly, decreasing the temperature of the molecules increases the pitch length of the chiral nematic liquid crystal. This makes it possible to build a liquid crystal thermometer that displays the temperature of its environment by the reflected color.

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry spring. OpenStax CNX. Mar 10, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10512/1.9
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