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4. Estimation of Avogadro's number

Briefly, as a group with your TA, you will make an approximate (order of magnitude) estimate of Avogadro's number by determining the amount of stearic acid that it takes to form a single layer (called a monolayer) on the surface of water. By making simple assumptions about the way the stearic acid molecules pack together to form the monolayer, we can determine its thickness, and from that thickness we can estimate the size of a carbon atom. Knowing the size of a carbon atom, we can compute its volume; and if we know the volume occupied by a mole of carbon (in the form of a diamond), we can divide the volume of a mole of carbon by the volume of an atom of carbon to get an estimate of Avogadro's number.

Procedure

Special Supplies: 14 cm watch glass; cm ruler; polyethylene transfer pipets; 1-mL syringes; pure distilled water free of surface active materials; disposable rubber gloves (for cleaning own watch glasses in 0.1 M NaOH in 50:50 methanol/water): 13 X 100 mm test tubes with rubber stoppers to fit.

Chemicals: pure hexane, 0.108 g/L stearic acid (purified grade) solution in hexane. 0.1 M NaOH in 50:50 methanol/water used for washing the watch glasses.

 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: Hexane is flammable! There must be no open flames in the laboratory while hexane is being used.

 WASTE COLLECTION: At the end of the experiment, unused hexane solvent and stearic acid in hexane solution should be placed in a waste container, marked "Waste hexane/stearic acid solution in hexane."

Measurement of the volume of stearic acid solution required to cover the water surface

Your TA will do this as a group demonstration:

  • Using a transfer pipette, obtain about 3-4 mL 0.108 g/L stearic acid solution in hexane in a clean, dry 13 X 100 mm test tube. Keep the tube corked when not in use.
  • Fill the clean watch glass to brim with deionized water. One recommended way to do this is to set up your 25 mL burette on a ring stand. Wash and drain the burette with deionized water. (the deionized water comes from the white handled spouts at each sink)
  • In a freshly cleaned and rinsed beaker, obtain more distilled water and fill the burette. Place your watch glass directly under the burette (about 1 inch or less from the tip) and dispense the water until the entire watch glass is full. You may have to refill the burette 4 or 5 times to do this. With careful dispensing, the surface tension of the water should allow you to fill the entire watch glass with relative ease.
  • Carefully measure the diameter of the water surface with a centimeter ruler. It should be close to 14 cm, + or - a couple of millimeters. Next, rinse and fill your 1 mL syringe with stearic acid solution, taking care to eliminate bubbles in the solution inside the syringe.
  • Read and record the initial volume of the syringe (1 mL is always a good place to start.)
  • Then add the stearic acid solution drop by drop to the water surface. Initially, the solution will spread across the entire surface, and it will continue to do so until a complete monolayer of stearic acid has been formed. If your first few drops do not spread and evaporate quickly, either your water or watch glass is still dirty. As this point is approached, the spreading will become slower and slower, until finally a drop will not spread out but will instead sit on the surface of the water (looking like a little contact lens). If this "lens" persists for at least 30 s, you can safely conclude that you have added 1 drop more than is required to form a complete monolayer.
  • Now, read and record the final volume reading of the syringe.Takes 10 min
  • Thoroughly clean the watch glass (or get another one), and repeat the experiment. Repeat until the results agree to within 2 or 3 drops (0.04 ml).

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
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