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Powerful bulldozers, fire engines and cranes use hydraulic power to lift heavy loads easily. A liquid is carried from a pump by means of pipes to cylinders where the liquid pushes valves/pistons out with great force. The pistons force the shovel into the soil and a heavy load of soil can thus be lifted. (A valve causes air or a liquid to move in one direction, but also prevents air or water from flowing back again.)

The advantage of making use of air pressure is that air is clean, freely available and safe under low pressure. Under high pressure air can be very dangerous. By nature air is resilient and this can cause a problem

Hydraulic systems are sometimes better than pneumatic systems because motion can be obtained more easily. When a leak occurs in a hydraulic system, it could be very messy.


To investigate a hydraulic and pneumatic system

[LO 1.3]


Two syringes of equal size.

A plastic tube of about 10 cm that will fit tightly over the opening of both syringes.


Draw out the plunger (piston) of one syringe and push in the plunger of the other syringe.

Connect the two syringes by means of the plastic tube.

Push in the plunger of one syringe.

Draw that plunger out again.


When one of the plungers is pushed in, the plunger of the other syringe is pushed out by the same distance. When the plunger of the one syringe is pulled out, the piston of the other syringe is sucked in by the same distance in the tube.


To replace air with water or oil

[LO 1.3]


How do the syringes that are filled with water compare with the syringes filled with air? Which system works best?


The pneumatic/hydraulic system works better.


To investigate the effect of syringes of different sizes on each other

[LO 1.3]


For example, connect a 10 ml syringe to a 20 ml syringe.

Push in the plunger of the small syringe and observe how many mm the plunger of the big tube moves out.

Also pull the plunger of the small syringe out and observe how many mm the plunger of the big tube moves in.


When a small cylinder has half the volume of a big cylinder, the plunger of the big cylinder moves (half/quarter of) the distance of what the small cylinder moves.

The force exerted by the big cylinder is (less/more), namely half as much (more/less).


[LO 1.3]

Now connect a big syringe with two smaller syringes, for example a 20 ml syringe with two 10 mm syringes by using a T-joint connection. The plunger in the big syringe must be pulled out and the plungers of the smaller syringes must be pushed in.

Push the plunger of the big syringe in and observe how many ml the plungers of the

smaller syringes move up.

Now push in the plungers of the smaller syringes and observe how many ml the plunger of the big syringe moves up.


Because the smaller syringes together have the same volume as the big syringe, their plungers move up (half the/the same) distance as the plunger of the big syringe when it is pushed in.

The force that is exerted in the big syringe is (a quarter/half) less in each small syringe.


In industry cylinders are used to perform the same tasks. If a pneumatic cylinder must be used often, a compressor with a control valve is used to let air into the cylinder. The cylinders are mechanically connected to the tube with an attachment and to the syringe with a pivot.


Learning outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Technological Processes and SkillsThe learner will be able to apply technological processes and skills ethically and responsibly using appropriate information and communication technologies.
Assessment standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
1.3 performs, where appropriate, scientific investigations about concepts relevant to a problem, need or opportunity using science process skills:planning investigations;conducting investigations;processing and interpreting data;evaluating and communicating findings

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11005/1.1
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