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If food has to be kept for more than two hours, it should be kept either very hot or very cool.

If cooked food is saved for another meal, it should be covered to keep off flies and insects and then thoroughly reheated beforebeing eaten.

Yogurt and sour porridge are good to use in meals because their acid prevents the growth of germs.

Raw food, especially poultry and seafood, usually contains germs. Cooked food can collect germs if it touches raw food. So rawand cooked foods should always be kept away from each other. Knives, chopping boards and surfaces where food is prepared should always becleaned after preparing raw food.

Breastmilk is the safest milk for infants and young children. Animal milk that is freshly boiled or pasteurized is safer thanunboiled milk.

Expressed breastmilk can be stored at room temperature for up to eight hours in a clean, covered container.

Special care should be taken with preparing food for infants and small children. Their food should be freshly made and not leftstanding, if possible.

Fruit and vegetables should be peeled or washed thoroughly with clean water, especially if they are to be given raw to babiesor small children. Chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides cannot be seen on fruit and vegetables but nonetheless can be dangerous.

Germs on food can be swallowed and cause illness. To protect food from germs:

  • food preparation surfaces should be kept clean
  • knives, cooking utensils, pots and plates should be kept clean and covered
  • cloths for cleaning dishes or pans should be washed thoroughly every day and dried in the sun. Plates, utensils and pans should be washedimmediately after eating and put on a rack to dry
  • food should be kept in covered containers to protect it from insects and animals
  • feeding bottles or teats should not be used because they can contain germs that cause diarrhoea unless they are cleaned each time withboiling water. Children should be breastfed or fed from a clean, open cup.

Washing hands


Drinking fresh water

Families have fewer illnesses when they have an adequate supply of clean water and know how to keep it free of germs.

If the water is not clean it can be purified by boiling or filtering.

Clean water sources include properly constructed and maintained piped systems, tube-wells, protected dug wells and springs.Water from unsafe sources - such as ponds, rivers, open tanks and step-wells - can be made safer by boiling. Water should be stored in a covered containerto keep it clean.

Families and communities can protect their water supply by:

  • keeping wells covered and installing a handpump
  • disposing of faeces and waste water (especially from latrines and household cleaning) well away from any water source used for cooking,drinking or washing
  • building latrines at least 15 metres away and downhill from a water source
  • always keeping buckets, ropes and jars used to collect and store water as clean as possible by storing them in a clean place, rather thanon the ground
  • keeping animals away from drinking water sources and family living areas
  • avoiding the use of pesticides or chemicals anywhere near a water source.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Health education course. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10330/1.1
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