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An introduction to file input and output with examples within the C++ programming language.

Overview of file i/o in c++

We need to understand how to open, read, write and close text files. The following File Input/Output terms are explained:

Text File – A file consisting of characters from the ASCII character code set. Text files (also know an ASCII text files) contain character data. When we create a text file we usually think of it consisting of a series of lines. On each line are several characters (including spaces, punctuation, etc.) and we generally end the line with a return (this a character within the ASCII character code set). The return is also known as the new line character. You are most likely already familiar with the escape code of \n which is used within C++ to indicate a return character when used with in a literal string with the cout.

A typical text file consisting of lines can be created by text editors (Notepad) or word processing programs (Microsoft Word). When using a word processor you must usually specify the output file as text (.txt) when saving it. Most source code files are ASCII text files with a unique file extension; such as C++ using .cpp, Pascal using .pas, Cobol using .cob, etc. Thus, most compiler/Integrated Development Environment software packages (such as the Bloodshed Dev-C++ 5 compiler/IDE ) can be used to create ASCII text files.

Filename – The name and its extension. Most operating systems have restrictions on which characters can be used in filenames. Example for MS-DOS and Windows: Lab_05.txt

Because some operating systems do not allow spaces, we suggest that you use the underscore where needed for spacing in a filename.

Filespec – The location of a file along with its filename. It is short for file specification. Most operating systems have a set of rules on how to specify the drive and directory (or path through several directory levels) along with the filename. Example for MS-DOS and Windows: C:\myfiles\cosc_1436\Lab_05.txt

Because some operating systems do not allow spaces, we suggest that you use the underscore where needed when creating folders or sub-directories.

Open – Your program requesting the operating system to let it have access to an existing file or to open a new file. Within C++ this is accomplished by including the header file:<fstream>File Input/Output is handled in C++ by using a pre-defined class of data objects, similar to the way string data type is handled. This class of objects has both data type names and functions built to specifically accomplish opening and closing a file.

Within your program you create a local storage variable with the data type of fstream like this:

fstream inData;

This variable will be used to store the device token that the operating system assigns to the file being opened. Thus, opening a file uses a class member function call like this:

inData.open("C:\\myfiles\\cosc_1436\\Lab_05.txt", ios::in);

The two parameters passed to the function are the filespec and the method that you want to use the file (in this example as input). The function provides a returning value of a device token from the operating system and it is stored in the variable named inData.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals - a modular structured approach using c++. OpenStax CNX. Jan 10, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10621/1.22
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