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Natuurwetenskappe

Graad 9

Die aarde, sterrestelsels en ruimteprogramme

Module 12

Die heelal se ontstaan

Aan die begin van die heelal se bestaan was daar geen materie nie.

Volgens wetenskaplikes was daar oorspronklik slegs ’n balletjie kleiner as ’n atoom en het dit so groot soos ’n rugbybal geword toe dit begin afkoel vanaf oneindig warm tot tien biljoen °C. Ons weet nie wat voor dié gebeure in die heelal was nie.

Die verklaring lui verder dat die ontsettende warm spasies en ’n sop van deeltjies en kragte skielik met ’n groot knal ontplof en begin uitswel het en steeds aan die uitswel is! Die teorie is daarop gegrond dat die sterrestelsels steeds van mekaar af weg beweeg. Wetenskaplikes kan ook nog die mikrogolwe van die nagloed bespeur.

Dit is bekend as die OERKNAL (BIG BANG) -teorie. Slegs een van die bekende vier kragte in die heelal het gegeld, nl. die superkrag – dit het net vir ’n triljoenste van ’n triljoenste van ’n sekonde geduur!

Kosmoloë (wetenskaplikes wat die heelal bestudeer) het ’n moeilike taak, aangesien hulle niks het om hulle idees teen te toets of mee te vergelyk nie. Daarom het ’n teorie soos die “Oerknal” ontstaan. Dit is ’n model wat hulle geskep het om alle ander verskynsels en aspekte mee te verklaar. Wetenskaplikes reken die heelal is besig om groter en groter te word.

’n Wetenskaplike met die naam Edward Hubble het hierdie beweging van sterrestelsels vir die eerste keer in die 1920’s aangeteken. Hy het bepaal dat die snelheid van ’n sterrestelsel direk eweredig is aan sy afstand van ons af. Hierdie vergelyking staan as Hubble se Wet bekend.

Aktiwiteit 1:

Om ’n model te bou

Neem ’n onopgeblaasde ballon en plak sterretjies oral op die oppervlak. Elke ster verteenwoordig ’n sterrestelsel. Plak ’n ronde plakkertjie tussenin om die Melkweg voor te stel.

Blaas nou die ballon op – let op dat die sterrestelsel en die Melkweg al hoe verder van mekaar af weg beweeg.

’n Reeks prosesse waarin geweldige hitte en druk ’n rol gespeel het, het tot die ontstaan van materie en elemente gelei.

  • Waterstof is in die eerste momente van die ontstaan van die heelal gevorm nadat ’n klomp kwarks (Materie: Graad 8) saamgepers was.
  • Die heelal met al sy sterre en materiewolke bestaan feitlik heeltemal uit helium en waterstof, die kleinste en ligste van alle elemente (soos jy in Graad 8 geleer het).
  • Hierdie elemente het ontstaan toe die kwarks en die “materiesop” gemeng en geweldige druk en hoë temperature ontstaan het.
  • Kwarks is so klein dat 10 biljoen biljoen van hulle langs mekaar slegs 1m lank sou wees.
  • Groter atome soos Berillium het gevorm toe daar in kernreaksies binne-in sterre groot getalle heliumatome saamgevoeg is.
  • Yster – ’n belangrike element in die aardkors – het diep binne sterre gevorm toe geweldige temperature en druk koolstofatome saamgepers het.
  • Alle materie in die heelal word bymekaar gehou deur VIER KRAGTE:
  • swaartekrag
  • elektromagnetiese kragte
  • sterk kernkragte
  • swak kernkragte

Antimaterie bestaan ook – dit is soos ’n spieëlbeeld van materie en wanneer die twee groepe bymekaar sou uitkom, sou hulle mekaar uitkanselleer! Gelukkig is daar baie min antimaterie in die ruimte.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natuurwetenskappe graad 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11068/1.1
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