<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Functional units

Where do the actual operations such as multiplication and addition take place? The C6000 CPU has several functional units that perform the actual operations. Each register file has 4 functional units named .M , .L , .S , and .D . The 4 functional units connected to the register file A are named .M1 , .L1 , .S1 , and .D1 . Those connected to the register file B are named .M2 , .L2 , .S2 , and .D2 . For example, the functional unit .M1 performs multiplication on the operands that are in register file A. When the CPU executes the MPY .M1 A0, A1, A3 above, the functional unit .M1 takes the value stored in A0 and A1 , multiply them together and stores the result to A3 . The .M1 in MPY .M1 A0, A1, A3 indicates that this operation is performed in the .M1 unit. The .M1 unit has a 16 bit multiplier and all the multiplications are performed by the .M1 (or .M2 ) unit. The following diagram shows the basic architecture of the C6000 family and functional units.

Functional Units of the 'C6x taken from SPRU198: TMS320C6000 Programmers' Guide

Similarly, the ADD operation can be executed by the .L1 unit. The .L1 can perform all the logical operations such as bitwise AND operation ( AND instruction) as well as basic addition ( ADD instruction) and subtraction ( SUB instruction).

Read the description of the ADD and MPY instructions in SPRU733 or similar document for the processor you are using. Write an assembly program that computes A0*(A1+A2)+A3 .

Typical assembly operations

Loading constants to registers

Quite often you need to load a register with a constant. The C6x instructions you can use for this task are MVK , MVKL , and MVKH . Each of these instructions can load a 16-bit constant to a register. The MVKL instruction loads the LOWER 16-bits and the MVKH instruction loads the HIGH 16-bits into the register. In order to load 32-bit values into a register, both instructions are needed.

(Loading constants): Write assembly instructions to do the following:

  1. Load the 16-bit constant 0xff12 to A1 .
  2. Load the 32-bit constant 0xabcd45ef to B0 .

Register moves, zeroing

Contents of one register can be copied to another register by using the MV instruction. There is also the ZERO instruction to set a register to zero.

Loading from memory to registers

Because the C6x processor has the so-called load/store architecture, you must first load up the content of memoryto a register to be able to manipulate it. The basic assembly instructions you use for loading are LDB , LDH , and LDW for loading up 8-, 16-, and 32-bit data from memory. (There are some variations to theseinstructions for different handling of the signs of the loaded values.)

However, to specify the address of the memory location to load from, you need to load up another register (used as anaddress index) and you can use various addressing modes to specify the memory locations in many different ways. The addressing mode is the method by which aninstruction calculates the location of an object in memory. The table below lists all the possible different ways tohandle the address pointers in the C6x CPU. Note the similarity with the C pointer manipulation.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
what's the program
Jordan
?
Jordan
what chemical
Jordan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Dsp lab with ti c6x dsp and c6713 dsk. OpenStax CNX. Feb 18, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11264/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Dsp lab with ti c6x dsp and c6713 dsk' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask