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Eusociality is characterized by a specialized non-reproducing class that works for the reproductive members within a colony. Rather than allocate their energy towards reproduction, the non-reproducing caste performs other functions such as foraging for food, defending the nest, or caring for juvenile relatives. Three contingencies are common among all eusocial species: reproductive division of labor, cooperative care of young, and overlapping of generations. Eusociality characterizes all ants and termites, and many bees and wasps. Previously believed to just exist just in Hymenoptera and Isoptera, marine eusocial species were found in the sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus of the order Decapoda by Emmett Duffy. Through the sampling of un-manipulated colonies, data show the Synalpheus colonies’ reproductive yield increases with increasing group size. Therefore, group social living is reproductively beneficial for the sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus—showing eusocial behavior is under positive selection in this species. Of the two kinds of eusociality, fortress defense or life insurance, Synalpheus is considered to be a fortress defender since it lives entirely inside sponges, using them as a source of protection, food, and as a site of reproduction. The sponges are very scarce on the ocean floor, making solitary living very difficult due to lack of shelter. The importance and scarcity of sponges induce eusociality in the species of Synalpheus, more specifically in the species Synalpheus regalis.

Author: Esra Deniz Gumuser


The major measure of success of an organism’s fitness is that the extent to which its genes are propagated through reproduction. Why, then, would an organism forgo the chance to spread copies of their genes by never reproducing? Several answers to this question have been formulated through experiments and observations of eusocial species found in the insect orders Hymenoptera and Isoptera (Wilson et al. 2005, Robinson 1992). One explanation is that ecological constraints create situations where eusociality is advantageous for both the reproductive individual and the non-reproducers (Buckle 1980). For instance, nests are difficult and dangerous to come by for most eusocial species, reducing the chances that a solitary individual could find another unoccupied nest, which is necessary for juveniles’ survival (Michener et al. 1974). Even if a nest is found, the solitary individuals are unable to defend their nests while foraging for food, resulting in a low survivorship of young due to predation (Batra 1966). In simple social species such as Liostenogaster flavolineata , adult worker females have a chance of becoming queen when the current one dies; thus becoming the sole reproductive individual (Bridge et al 2007). By remaining in natal nests to assist the development of juvenile siblings, adults forgo their opportunity to reproduce but still increase their fitness (copies of genes in future generations) through indirect measures and kin selection ( [link] ). Overall, in most social species including the sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus regalis , eusociality arises due to ecological factors of limited food resources and shelter. These situations can be combated through the creation of castes that chiefly forage, defend, or reproduce—leading to the formation of eusociality (Crespi et al. 1995).

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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