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Eusociality is characterized by a specialized non-reproducing class that works for the reproductive members within a colony. Rather than allocate their energy towards reproduction, the non-reproducing caste performs other functions such as foraging for food, defending the nest, or caring for juvenile relatives. Three contingencies are common among all eusocial species: reproductive division of labor, cooperative care of young, and overlapping of generations. Eusociality characterizes all ants and termites, and many bees and wasps. Previously believed to just exist just in Hymenoptera and Isoptera, marine eusocial species were found in the sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus of the order Decapoda by Emmett Duffy. Through the sampling of un-manipulated colonies, data show the Synalpheus colonies’ reproductive yield increases with increasing group size. Therefore, group social living is reproductively beneficial for the sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus—showing eusocial behavior is under positive selection in this species. Of the two kinds of eusociality, fortress defense or life insurance, Synalpheus is considered to be a fortress defender since it lives entirely inside sponges, using them as a source of protection, food, and as a site of reproduction. The sponges are very scarce on the ocean floor, making solitary living very difficult due to lack of shelter. The importance and scarcity of sponges induce eusociality in the species of Synalpheus, more specifically in the species Synalpheus regalis.

Author: Esra Deniz Gumuser

Introduction

The major measure of success of an organism’s fitness is that the extent to which its genes are propagated through reproduction. Why, then, would an organism forgo the chance to spread copies of their genes by never reproducing? Several answers to this question have been formulated through experiments and observations of eusocial species found in the insect orders Hymenoptera and Isoptera (Wilson et al. 2005, Robinson 1992). One explanation is that ecological constraints create situations where eusociality is advantageous for both the reproductive individual and the non-reproducers (Buckle 1980). For instance, nests are difficult and dangerous to come by for most eusocial species, reducing the chances that a solitary individual could find another unoccupied nest, which is necessary for juveniles’ survival (Michener et al. 1974). Even if a nest is found, the solitary individuals are unable to defend their nests while foraging for food, resulting in a low survivorship of young due to predation (Batra 1966). In simple social species such as Liostenogaster flavolineata , adult worker females have a chance of becoming queen when the current one dies; thus becoming the sole reproductive individual (Bridge et al 2007). By remaining in natal nests to assist the development of juvenile siblings, adults forgo their opportunity to reproduce but still increase their fitness (copies of genes in future generations) through indirect measures and kin selection ( [link] ). Overall, in most social species including the sponge-dwelling shrimp Synalpheus regalis , eusociality arises due to ecological factors of limited food resources and shelter. These situations can be combated through the creation of castes that chiefly forage, defend, or reproduce—leading to the formation of eusociality (Crespi et al. 1995).

Questions & Answers

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s.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s.
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
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Ebrahim
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s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
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Porter
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Yasmin
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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AMJAD
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AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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