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  • Describe methods to produce an electromotive force (emf) with a magnetic field or magnet and a loop of wire.

The apparatus used by Faraday to demonstrate that magnetic fields can create currents is illustrated in [link] . When the switch is closed, a magnetic field is produced in the coil on the top part of the iron ring and transmitted to the coil on the bottom part of the ring. The galvanometer is used to detect any current induced in the coil on the bottom. It was found that each time the switch is closed, the galvanometer detects a current in one direction in the coil on the bottom. Each time the switch is opened, the galvanometer detects a current in the opposite direction. Interestingly, if the switch remains closed or open for any length of time, there is no current through the galvanometer. Closing and opening the switch induces the current. It is the change in magnetic field that creates the current. More basic than the current that flows is the voltage that causes it. The current is a result of an voltage induced by a changing magnetic field , whether or not there is a path for current to flow.

The picture shows Faraday’s apparatus for demonstrating that a magnetic field can produce a current. It consists of a cylinder shaped battery. The positive end of the battery is connected to an open switch. There is a ring shaped iron core consisting of a set of coils one on the top and another at the bottom. The other end of the switch is connected to one end of the top coil. The other end of the top coil is connected back to the battery. Both the ends of the bottom coil are shown connected across a galvanometer box which shows a null deflection.
Faraday’s apparatus for demonstrating that a magnetic field can produce a current. A change in the field produced by the top coil induces an voltage and, hence, a current in the bottom coil. When the switch is opened and closed, the galvanometer registers currents in opposite directions. No current flows through the galvanometer when the switch remains closed or open.

An experiment easily performed and often done in physics labs is illustrated in [link] . A voltage is induced in the coil when a bar magnet is pushed in and out of it. Voltages of opposite signs are produced by motion in opposite directions, and the voltages are also reversed by reversing poles. The same results are produced if the coil is moved rather than the magnet—it is the relative motion that is important. The faster the motion, the greater the voltage, and there is no voltage when the magnet is stationary relative to the coil.

The diagram shows five stages of an experiment done by moving a magnet relative to a coil and measuring the e m f produced. The first stage of the experiment shows a wire coil with two loops connected across a galvanometer. The loop is in horizontal plane. A cylindrical rod shaped magnet is moved upward through the loop with the north pole of the magnet facing the loop and the South Pole away from the loop. The magnetic lines of force of the magnet are shown to emerge out from the North Pole and intersect the coil. A current is shown to be induced in the coil in clockwise direction. The galvanometer needle is shown to deflect toward right. The second stage of the experiment shows the next state of the first stage of the experiment. The cylindrical rod shaped magnet is now moved downward away from the loop with the north pole of the magnet facing the loop and South Pole away from the loop. The magnetic lines of force of the magnet are shown to emerge out from the North Pole and intersect the coil. A current is shown to be induced in the coil in anti clockwise direction. The galvanometer needle is shown to deflect toward left. The third stage of the experiment shows a wire coil with two loops connected across a galvanometer. The loop is in horizontal plane. A cylindrical rod shaped magnet is moved upward through the loop with the south pole of the magnet facing the loop and the North Pole away from the loop. The magnetic lines of force of the magnet are shown to merge into the South Pole and intersect the coil. A current is shown to be induced in the coil in anti clockwise direction. The galvanometer needle is shown to deflect toward left. The fourth stage of the experiment shows the next state of the third stage of the experiment. The cylindrical rod shaped magnet is now moved downward away from the loop with the south pole of the magnet facing the loop and the North Pole away from the loop. The magnetic lines of force of the magnet are shown to merge into the South Pole and intersect the coil. A current is shown to be induced in the coil in clockwise direction. The galvanometer needle is shown to deflect toward right. The fifth stage of the experiment shows a wire coil with two loops connected across a galvanometer. The loop is in horizontal plane. A cylindrical rod shaped magnet is held stationary near the loop with the north pole of the magnet facing the loop and south away from the loop. The magnetic lines of force of the magnet are shown to emerge out from the North Pole and intersect the coil. No current is induced in the coil. The galvanometer needle does not deflect.
Movement of a magnet relative to a coil produces voltage as shown. The same voltages are produced if the coil is moved relative to the magnet. The greater the speed, the greater the magnitude of the voltage, and the voltage is zero when there is no motion.

The method of inducing a voltage used in most electric generators is shown in [link] . A coil is rotated in a magnetic field, producing an alternating voltage (and current), which depends on rotation rate and other factors that will be explored in later sections. Note that the generator is remarkably similar in construction to a motor.

The figure shows a schematic diagram of an electric generator. It consists of a rotating rectangular coil placed between the two poles of a permanent magnet shown as two rectangular blocks curved on side facing the coil. The magnetic field B is shown pointing from the North to the South Pole. The two ends of this coil are connected to the two small rings. The two conducting carbon brushes are kept pressed separately on both the rings. The coil is attached to an axle with a handle at the other end. The axle may be mechanically rotated from outside to rotate the coil inside the magnetic field. Outer ends of the two brushes are connected to the galvanometer. A current is shown to flow in the coil in anti clockwise direction and the galvanometer shows a deflection.
Rotation of a coil in a magnetic field produces a voltage. This is the basic construction of a generator, where work done to turn the coil is converted to electric energy. Note the generator is very similar in construction to a motor.

So we see that changing the magnitude or direction of a magnetic field produces a voltage. Experiments revealed that there is a crucial quantity called the magnetic flux    , Φ size 12{Φ} {} , given by

Φ = B A ,

where B size 12{B} {} is the magnetic field strength over an area A size 12{A} {} , at an angle θ with the perpendicular to the area as shown in [link] . Any change in magnetic flux Φ size 12{Φ} {} induces a voltage. This process is defined to be electromagnetic induction    . Units of magnetic flux Φ size 12{Φ} {} are T m 2 size 12{T cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .

Figure shows a flat square shaped surface A. The magnetic field B is shown to act on the surface at an angle theta with the normal to the surface A. The cosine component of magnetic field B cos theta is shown to act parallel to the normal to the surface.
Magnetic flux Φ is related to the magnetic field and the area A over which it exists. Only the portion of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the area ( B ) contributes to the flux. The flux Φ = B A is related to induction; any change in Φ induces a voltage.

All induction, including the examples given so far, arises from some change in magnetic flux Φ size 12{Φ} {} . For example, Faraday changed B size 12{B} {} and hence Φ size 12{Φ} {} when opening and closing the switch in his apparatus (shown in [link] ). This is also true for the bar magnet and coil shown in [link] . When rotating the coil of a generator, the angle θ size 12{θ} {} and, hence, Φ size 12{Φ} {} is changed. Just how great a voltage and what direction it takes depend on the change in Φ size 12{Φ} {} and how rapidly the change is made, as examined in the next section.

Section summary

  • The crucial quantity in induction is magnetic flux Φ , defined to be Φ = B A , where B is the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the area A .
  • Units of magnetic flux Φ size 12{Φ} {} are T m 2 size 12{T cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .
  • Any change in magnetic flux Φ size 12{Φ} {} induces a voltage—the process is defined to be electromagnetic induction.

Conceptual questions

How do the multiple-loop coils and iron ring in the version of Faraday’s apparatus shown in [link] enhance the observation of induced voltage?

When a magnet is thrust into a coil as in [link] (a), what is the direction of the force exerted by the coil on the magnet? Draw a diagram showing the direction of the current induced in the coil and the magnetic field it produces, to justify your response. How does the magnitude of the force depend on the resistance of the galvanometer?

Explain how magnetic flux can be zero when the magnetic field is not zero.

Is a voltage induced in the coil in [link] when it is stretched? If so, state why and give the direction of the induced current.

The first part of the figure shows a circular coil of wire held in a magnetic field. The magnetic field points into the paper. The coil is held using both the hands to stretch it. The second part of the figure shows the same circular coil of wire stretched in the magnetic field.
A circular coil of wire is stretched in a magnetic field.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of physics with linear momentum. OpenStax CNX. Aug 11, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11960/1.9
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