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The region between Florence and Rome, now known as Tuscany, was populated by the prosperous Etruscans who capitalized on the rich copper and iron deposits of the area. They had twelve cities in Tuscany, additional settlements in the Po Valley and they controlled western Italy down to Cumae. In the north after 600 B.C. Bononia began to produce a great series of bronze buckets shaped like truncated cones and bearing figured reliefs. These have been found as far away as Austria and Slovenia and the Bononian ones may be copies of the latter. On the Adriatic Sea, in this century, several villages were brought together to form the port of Spina, not far from present day Venice. Spina was centered on a long, wide canal which connected the sea to a lagoon. The city covered over 700 acres, chiefly on peninsulae connected to the mainland only by narrow tongues of land. It was peopled by Etruscans and Greeks as well as the more native Venetii, and some of the latter apparently converted to the Etruscan language.

All of the western Etruscan city-states had their individual merchant navies which were active in the Tyrrhenian Sea, trading at the Greek and Cathaginian ports and their trader-pirates were active even in the Aegean, where they may have had a colony on the island of Lemnos. Many elements in their art and religion have been interpreted as Near East in origin, and as previously mentioned, traditionally it has been surmised that at least their rulers were immigrants from Asia Minor, Lydia in particular, but this has now been pretty well disproved. In 1964 there was excavated at Pergi, Italy, a letter written on sheets of gold leaf, in Etruscan, supposedly from Hiram, Lord of Tyre, to the king of Lavinia (near Rome) and Fell (Ref. 65 ) interprets the language as belonging to the Anatolian group and related to Hittite and Urartian. This does not, in itself, prove Near East ancestry for the Etruscan people. (Ref. 68 , 65 )

Originally the people of Rome were ruled by Etruscan kings, who, in turn, appointed or nominated the senate from the patrician families. Throughout most of this century Rome was actually an Etruscan city, even though the common language there was an Indo European one, destined to become Latin. The draining of the marsh for erection of the Roman Forum by construction of the impressive Cloaca Maxima was a typical Etruscan kind of operation. Etruscan metal-work, pottery and armour appeared in Rome, along with Etruscan immigrants. Terracotta friezes are identical in Rome and Veii and the great sculptor, Vulca of Veii, made the statue of Jupiter for a huge temple in Rome. The last of the Roman kings was an Etruscan and when he was overthrown the republic was established. After 510 B.C. the senators were appointed by two elected consuls. One of these, Valerius Poplicola, promoted the Lex Valeria, sometimes called the "Habeas Corpus" of Rome, allowing the plebians to appeal decisions of the magistrates to the general assembly, thus freeing them from the worst class vindictiveness. (Ref. 229 , 75 )

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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