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Rank the compounds in each of the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.

(a) acidity: NaHSO 3 , NaHSeO 3 , NaHSO 4

(b) basicity: BrO 2 , ClO 2 , IO 2

(c) acidity: HOCl, HOBr, HOI

(d) acidity: HOCl, HOClO, HOClO 2 , HOClO 3

(e) basicity: NH 2 , HS , HTe , PH 2

(f) basicity: BrO , BrO 2 , BrO 3 , BrO 4

(a) NaHSeO 3 <NaHSO 3 <NaHSO 4 ; in polyoxy acids, the more electronegative central element—S, in this case—forms the stronger acid. The larger number of oxygen atoms on the central atom (giving it a higher oxidation state) also creates a greater release of hydrogen atoms, resulting in a stronger acid. As a salt, the acidity increases in the same manner. (b) ClO 2 < BrO 2 < IO 2 ; the basicity of the anions in a series of acids will be the opposite of the acidity in their oxyacids. The acidity increases as the electronegativity of the central atom increases. Cl is more electronegative than Br, and I is the least electronegative of the three. (c) HOI<HOBr<HOCl; in a series of the same form of oxyacids, the acidity increases as the electronegativity of the central atom increases. Cl is more electronegative than Br, and I is the least electronegative of the three. (d) HOCl<HOClO<HOClO 2 <HOClO 3 ; in a series of oxyacids of the same central element, the acidity increases as the number of oxygen atoms increases (or as the oxidation state of the central atom increases). (e) HTe < HS << PH 2 < NH 2 ; PH 2 and NH 2 are anions of weak bases, so they act as strong bases toward H + . HTe and HS are anions of weak acids, so they have less basic character. In a periodic group, the more electronegative element has the more basic anion. (f) BrO 4 < BrO 3 < BrO 2 < BrO ; with a larger number of oxygen atoms (that is, as the oxidation state of the central ion increases), the corresponding acid becomes more acidic and the anion consequently less basic.

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Both HF and HCN ionize in water to a limited extent. Which of the conjugate bases, F or CN , is the stronger base? See [link] .

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The active ingredient formed by aspirin in the body is salicylic acid, C 6 H 4 OH(CO 2 H). The carboxyl group (−CO 2 H) acts as a weak acid. The phenol group (an OH group bonded to an aromatic ring) also acts as an acid but a much weaker acid. List, in order of descending concentration, all of the ionic and molecular species present in a 0.001- M aqueous solution of C 6 H 4 OH(CO 2 H).

[ H 2 O ] > [ C 6 H 4 OH ( CO 2 H ) ] > [H + ] 0 > [C 6 H 4 OH ( CO 2 ) ] [ C 6 H 4 O ( CO 2 H ) ] > [ OH ]

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What do we represent when we write:
CH 3 CO 2 H ( a q ) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + ( a q ) + CH 3 CO 2 ( a q ) ?

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Explain why equilibrium calculations are not necessary to determine ionic concentrations in solutions of certain strong electrolytes such as NaOH and HCl. Under what conditions are equilibrium calculations necessary as part of the determination of the concentrations of all ions of some other strong electrolytes in solution?

Strong electrolytes are 100% ionized, and, as long as the component ions are neither weak acids nor weak bases, the ionic species present result from the dissociation of the strong electrolyte. Equilibrium calculations are necessary when one (or more) of the ions is a weak acid or a weak base.

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Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
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