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4.0 conclusions

As far as the Hough Transform goes, our findings were as follows:

  • The success of the algorithm depends on edge magnitude threshold, Hough transform threshold, and radius parameters. and image noise. Changing thresholds results in tradeoffs between false positives and false negatives.
  • For images with single balls, the algorithm can detect the ball with 95.6 % accuracy. Of the wrongly detected images, 66.7% had high amounts of motion blur.
  • The algorithm can also detect balls partially cut out of the image as long as more than 60% of the ball is within the image.
  • In images where multiple balls are close or overlapping, the algorithm may mistake the two balls as a single object or miss one of the balls.

The video linked in the Additional Resources section also demonstrates our Hough transform implementation in action.

4.1 future steps

The next primary addition to our robot is object permanence, giving it the capability to remember balls that have moved out of its field of view and rotate itself to find them again. Other future goals include recognizing when an obstacle is in front of the ball, fine-tuning the PID control in order to speed up the angling and approach to a ball, and being able to prioritize different balls based on properties like color.

4.2 additional resources

A video of our robot in action can be found here on Youtube.

Our poster presentation can be downloaded from this link .

Python code for the Hough transform can be found here .

The custom library used by the robot can be found here .

4.3 references

  • M.K. Vairalkar and S.U. Nimbhorkar. Edge detection of images using Sobel operator. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2(1):291–293,2012.
  • R.O. Duda and P.E. Hart. Use of the Hough transform to detect lines and curves in pictures. Community Assoc. comput. Mach. 15 (1975), pp. 11-15.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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