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A brief history of the Ptolemaic System.

Ptolemaic System
In his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican of 1632, Galileo attacked the world system based on the cosmology of Aristotle (384-322 BCE)and the technical astronomy of Ptolemy (ca. 150 CE).

In his books On the Heavens , and Physics , Aristotle put forward his notion of an ordered universe or cosmos. It was governed by the concept ofplace , as opposed to space, and was divided into two distinct parts, the earthly or sublunary region, and the heavens. Theformer was the abode of change and corruption, where things came into being, grew, matured, decayed, and died; the latter was theregion of perfection, where there was no change. In the sublunary region, substances were made up of the four elements,earth, water, air, and fire. Earth was the heaviest, and its natural place was the center of the cosmos; for that reason theEarth was situated in the center of the cosmos. The natural places of water, air, and fire, were concentric spherical shellsaround the sphere of earth. Things were not arranged perfectly, and therefore areas of land protruded above the water. Objectssought the natural place of the element that predominated in them. Thus stones, in which earth predominated, move down to thecenter of the cosmos, and fire moves straight up. Natural motions were, then, radial, either down or up. The four elementsdiffered from each other only in their qualities. Thus, earth was cold and dry while air was warm and moist. Changing one orboth of its qualities, transmuted one element into another. Such transmutations were going on constantly, adding to the constantchange in this sublunary region.

Ptolemy

The heavens, on the other hand, were made up of an entirely different substance, the aether

The traditional English spelling, aether, is used here to distinguish Aristotle's heavenly substance from the modernchemical substance, ether.
or quintessence (fifth element), an immutable substance. Heavenly bodies were part of spherical shells of aether. Thesespherical shells fit tightly around each other, without any spaces between them, in the following order: Moon, Mercury,Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, fixed stars. Each spherical shell (hereafter, simply, sphere) had its particular rotation,that accounted for the motion of the heavenly body contained in it. Outside the sphere of the fixed stars, there was the primemover (himself unmoved), who imparted motion from the outside inward. All motions in the cosmos came ultimately from thisprime mover. The natural motions of heavenly bodies and their spheres was perfectly circular, that is, circular and neitherspeeding up nor slowing down.

It is to be noted about this universe that everything had its natural place, a privileged location for bodies with aparticular makeup, and that the laws of nature were not the same in the heavenly and the earthly regions. Further, there were noempty places or vacua anywhere. Finally, it was finite: beyond the sphere of the fixed stars and the prime mover, there wasnothing, not even space. The cosmos encompassed all existence.

Christian Aristotelian Cosmos. From Peter Apian, Cosmographia

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Galileo project. OpenStax CNX. Jul 07, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10234/1.1
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