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A spark of static electricity, such as that you might receive from a doorknob on a cold dry day, may carry a few hundred watts of power. Explain why you are not injured by such a spark.

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Problems&Exercises

The Crab Nebula (see [link] ) pulsar is the remnant of a supernova that occurred in A.D. 1054. Using data from [link] , calculate the approximate factor by which the power output of this astronomical object has declined since its explosion.

A supernova explosion.
Crab Nebula (credit: ESO, via Wikimedia Commons)
2 × 10 10 size 12{2 times "10" rSup { size 8{-"10"} } } {}
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Suppose a star 1000 times brighter than our Sun (that is, emitting 1000 times the power) suddenly goes supernova. Using data from [link] : (a) By what factor does its power output increase? (b) How many times brighter than our entire Milky Way galaxy is the supernova? (c) Based on your answers, discuss whether it should be possible to observe supernovas in distant galaxies. Note that there are on the order of 10 11 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } } {} observable galaxies, the average brightness of which is somewhat less than our own galaxy.

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A person in good physical condition can put out 100 W of useful power for several hours at a stretch, perhaps by pedaling a mechanism that drives an electric generator. Neglecting any problems of generator efficiency and practical considerations such as resting time: (a) How many people would it take to run a 4.00-kW electric clothes dryer? (b) How many people would it take to replace a large electric power plant that generates 800 MW?

(a) 40

(b) 8 million

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What is the cost of operating a 3.00-W electric clock for a year if the cost of electricity is $0.0900 per kW h size 12{"kW" cdot h} {} ?

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A large household air conditioner may consume 15.0 kW of power. What is the cost of operating this air conditioner 3.00 h per day for 30.0 d if the cost of electricity is $0.110 per kW h size 12{"kW" cdot h} {} ?

$149

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(a) What is the average power consumption in watts of an appliance that uses 5 . 00 kW h size 12{5 "." "00 kW" cdot h} {} of energy per day? (b) How many joules of energy does this appliance consume in a year?

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(a) What is the average useful power output of a person who does 6 . 00 × 10 6 J size 12{6 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {} of useful work in 8.00 h? (b) Working at this rate, how long will it take this person to lift 2000 kg of bricks 1.50 m to a platform? (Work done to lift his body can be omitted because it is not considered useful output here.)

(a) 208 W

(b) 141 s

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A 500-kg dragster accelerates from rest to a final speed of 110 m/s in 400 m (about a quarter of a mile) and encounters an average frictional force of 1200 N. What is its average power output in watts and horsepower if this takes 7.30 s?

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(a) How long will it take an 850-kg car with a useful power output of 40.0 hp (1 hp = 746 W) to reach a speed of 15.0 m/s, neglecting friction? (b) How long will this acceleration take if the car also climbs a 3.00-m-high hill in the process?

(a) 3.20 s

(b) 4.04 s

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(a) Find the useful power output of an elevator motor that lifts a 2500-kg load a height of 35.0 m in 12.0 s, if it also increases the speed from rest to 4.00 m/s. Note that the total mass of the counterbalanced system is 10,000 kg—so that only 2500 kg is raised in height, but the full 10,000 kg is accelerated. (b) What does it cost, if electricity is $0.0900 per kW h size 12{"kW" cdot h} {} ?

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(a) What is the available energy content, in joules, of a battery that operates a 2.00-W electric clock for 18 months? (b) How long can a battery that can supply 8 . 00 × 10 4 J size 12{8 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " J"} {} run a pocket calculator that consumes energy at the rate of 1 . 00 × 10 3 W size 12{1 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{-3} } " W"} {} ?

(a) 9 . 46 × 10 7 J size 12{9 "." "46" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " J"} {}

(b) 2 . 54 y size 12{2 "." "54" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " J"} {}

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(a) How long would it take a 1 . 50 × 10 5 size 12{1 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } } {} -kg airplane with engines that produce 100 MW of power to reach a speed of 250 m/s and an altitude of 12.0 km if air resistance were negligible? (b) If it actually takes 900 s, what is the power? (c) Given this power, what is the average force of air resistance if the airplane takes 1200 s? (Hint: You must find the distance the plane travels in 1200 s assuming constant acceleration.)

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Calculate the power output needed for a 950-kg car to climb a 2.00º slope at a constant 30.0 m/s while encountering wind resistance and friction totaling 600 N. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Energy .

Identify knowns: m = 950 kg size 12{m="950"`"kg"} {} , slope angle θ = 2.00º , v = 3.00 m/s , f = 600 N size 12{f="600"`N} {}

Identify unknowns: power P size 12{P} {} of the car, force F size 12{F} {} that car applies to road

Solve for unknown:

P = W t = Fd t = F d t = Fv , size 12{P= { {W} over {t} } = { { ital "Fd"} over {t} } =F left ( { {d} over {t} } right )= ital "Fv",} {}

where F size 12{F} {} is parallel to the incline and must oppose the resistive forces and the force of gravity:

F = f + w = 600 N + mg sin θ size 12{F=f+w="600 N"+ ital "mg""sin"θ} {}

Insert this into the expression for power and solve:

P = f + mg sin θ v = 600 N + 950 kg 9.80 m/s 2 sin 2º ( 30.0 m/s ) = 2.77 × 10 4 W alignl { stack { size 12{P= left (f+ ital "mg""sin"θ right )v} {} #size 12{ {}= left ["600 N"+ left ("950 kg" right ) left (9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right )"sin2"° right ] \( "30" "." "0 m/s" \) } {} #=2 "." "77" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `W {} } } {}

About 28 kW (or about 37 hp) is reasonable for a car to climb a gentle incline.

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(a) Calculate the power per square meter reaching Earth’s upper atmosphere from the Sun. (Take the power output of the Sun to be 4 . 00 × 10 26 W . ) (b) Part of this is absorbed and reflected by the atmosphere, so that a maximum of 1 . 30 kW/m 2 reaches Earth’s surface. Calculate the area in km 2 of solar energy collectors needed to replace an electric power plant that generates 750 MW if the collectors convert an average of 2.00% of the maximum power into electricity. (This small conversion efficiency is due to the devices themselves, and the fact that the sun is directly overhead only briefly.) With the same assumptions, what area would be needed to meet the United States’ energy needs ( 1 . 05 × 10 20 J ) ? size 12{ \( 1 "." "05" times "10" rSup { size 8{"20"} } " J" \) ?} {} Australia’s energy needs ( 5 . 4 × 10 18 J)? size 12{ \( 5 "." 4 times "10" rSup { size 8{"18"} } " J" \) ?} {} China’s energy needs ( 6 . 3 × 10 19 J)? size 12{ \( 6 "." 3 times "10" rSup { size 8{"19"} } " J" \) ?} {} (These energy consumption values are from 2006.)

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Questions & Answers

can some one tell me how v=RW is dimensionally correct?
YAGNAK Reply
ms-1 = m X Hz
babar
What is displacement
Megha Reply
shortest distance b/w two points
bilal
distance+direction
A.d
explain distanace+direction
bilal
the change of postion from one point to another with direction
A.d
if we change thrle direction then displacement is destroy?
bilal
change the direction then?
bilal
what do u mean by i didnt understand bro
A.d
displacement is one dimension...?
bilal
displacement is the total length an object cover from initial to the final with respect to direction as Well as time.
mohammed
thanks
bilal
what are the differences between vector and scalar quantity
Kabba Reply
vector is assigned to those physical quantity that has both direction and magnitude! example velocity ,scalar just has magnitude example Mass of an object. hope it helps
Mudang
velocity is produce in fan...?
bilal Reply
how many electrons are there in 5 microcouloumb
Obed Reply
can a given total amount of mechanical energy be totally converted into heat energy..if so give example
Muhammad Reply
human running
Emmanuel
what is the fumula for calculating specific heat capacity, fusion,fission and vaporization?
Dohn Reply
Q=cm(∆t)
Emmanuel
Q=cm∆T
Muhammad
what is difference b/w vaporization and evaporation
Muhammad
evaporation is the process of extracting moisture while vaporization is process of becoming a vapor or gas
Emmanuel
From a molecular standpoint they are both cooling processes. Also, you may want to explore states of matter😊 #myTwoCents ~Shi~
Shii
cooling is a similarlity in both process I am confused in difference
Muhammad
1- Evaporation is a process where a liquid change to gas without reaching its boiling point. 2- Vaporization is a process where a liquid change to gas after reaching its boiling point. 3- Sublimation is a process where a solid changes into vapour without passing through a liquid state
Victor
I see. Evaporation is a type of vaporization, that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point. hope that aids
Shii
vaporisation is cooling process while vaporization is heating process
Emmanuel
I mean to write evaporation is an heating process while vaporization is cooling process
Emmanuel
Yea here are two applications. 1- your wet washed clothes dry under the sun, the water EVAPORATES 2- when u are cooking, it reaches a point where u need to add more water because the water you added previously is getting dried. this is VAPORIZATION. Am not sure which is a cooling or heating process
Victor
vaporization occur only when the evaporation get to level where the above cloud is been (saturated) so cooling take place and started to change to liquid (eg rain fall)
Emmanuel
They are both properties of the same process so they're both cooling
Shii
what about sublimation? cooling or heating process?
Victor
exact
Muhammad
evaporation is the increase in kinetic energy of the liquid which can be gone by adding heat
Emmanuel
so its an heating process
Emmanuel
sublimation is when a solid change to gas
Emmanuel
evaporation is very definitely a cooling process. respectfully@Emmanuel when liquid turns to gas it requires more energy from its surroundings, this energy is in the form of heat, and when heat energy leaves the evaporating liquid it leaves it cooler. Thus, cooling process.
Shii
.
Shii
evaporation is very definitely a cooling process. respectfully@Emmanuel
Shii
kk
Emmanuel
You're right @Shi. I get your point
Victor
eascape velocity on the surface of Earth is 11.2 kms-1 the escape velocity on the surface of another planet of same mass as that of Earth but of 1/4 times of radius of Earth is a5.6kms-1 b11.2 kms-1 c22.4kms-1 d5.6ms-1
Muhammad
Emm.. is that a question? or..
Victor
it is McQ
Muhammad
a)5.6km/s
Alvis
c= Q/cm◇T
A.d
it's answer is 22.4
Muhammad
units...
Shii
vital
Shii
the time period of the artificial satellite is given by ?
raza
Why is there no 2nd harmonic in the classical electron orbit?
Shree Reply
how to reform magnet after been demagneted
Inuwa Reply
A petrol engine has a output of 20 kilowatts and uses 4.5 kg of fuel for each hour of running. The energy given out when 1 kg of petrol is burnt is 4.8 × 10 to the power of 7 Joules. a) What is the energy output of the engine every hour? b) What is the energy input of the engine every hour?
Morris Reply
Issac Newton devised a genius way to calculate changing quantities...
Shii
what is the error during taking work done of a body..
Aliyu Reply
what kind of error do you think? and work is held by which force?
Daniela
I am now in this group
smart
theory,laws,principles and what-a-view are not defined. why? you
Douglas Reply
A simple pendulum is used in a physics laboratory experiment to obtain an experimental value for the gravitational acceleration, g . A student measures the length of the pendulum to be 0.510 meters, displaces it 10 o from the equilibrium position, and releases it. Using a s
Emmanuel Reply
so what question are you passing across... sir?
Olalekan
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed?
Emmanuel Reply
54 joule
babar
how?
rakesh
Reduce that two body problem into one body problem. Apply potential and k. E formula to get total energy of the system
rakesh
i dont think dere is any potential energy... by d virtue of no height present
Olalekan
there is compressed energy,dats only potential energy na?
rakesh
yes.. but... how will u approach that question without The Height in the question?
Olalekan
Can you explain how you get 54J?
Emmanuel
Because mine is 36J
Emmanuel
got 36J too
Douglas
OK the answer is 54J Babar is correct
Emmanuel
Conservation of Momentum
Emmanuel
woow i see.. can you give the formula for this
joshua
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed? Asume there is no external force.
Emmanuel Reply
Please help!
Emmanuel
please help find dy/dx 2x-y/x+y
Inuwa
By using the Quotient Rule dy/dx = 3y/(x +y)²
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Emmanuel
may be by using MC^2=MC^2 and Total energy=kinetic energy +potential energy so 1st find kinetic energy and den find potential energy which is stored energy
rakesh
i think i m correct
rakesh
But how?
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Douglas
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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