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  • Discuss the single slit diffraction pattern.

Light passing through a single slit forms a diffraction pattern somewhat different from those formed by double slits or diffraction gratings. [link] shows a single slit diffraction pattern. Note that the central maximum is larger than those on either side, and that the intensity decreases rapidly on either side. In contrast, a diffraction grating produces evenly spaced lines that dim slowly on either side of center.

Part a of the figure shows a slit in a vertical bar. To the right of the bar is a graph of intensity versus height. The graph is turned ninety degrees counterclockwise so that the intensity scale increases to the left and the height increases as you go up the page. Just in front of the gap, a strong central peak extends leftward from the graph’s baseline, and many smaller satellite peaks appear above and below this central peak. Part b of the figure shows a drawing of the two-dimensional intensity pattern that is observed from single slit diffraction. The central stripe is quite broad compared to the satellite stripes, and there are dark areas between all the stripes.
(a) Single slit diffraction pattern. Monochromatic light passing through a single slit has a central maximum and many smaller and dimmer maxima on either side. The central maximum is six times higher than shown. (b) The drawing shows the bright central maximum and dimmer and thinner maxima on either side.

The analysis of single slit diffraction is illustrated in [link] . Here we consider light coming from different parts of the same slit. According to Huygens’s principle, every part of the wavefront in the slit emits wavelets. These are like rays that start out in phase and head in all directions. (Each ray is perpendicular to the wavefront of a wavelet.) Assuming the screen is very far away compared with the size of the slit, rays heading toward a common destination are nearly parallel. When they travel straight ahead, as in [link] (a), they remain in phase, and a central maximum is obtained. However, when rays travel at an angle θ size 12{θ} {} relative to the original direction of the beam, each travels a different distance to a common location, and they can arrive in or out of phase. In [link] (b), the ray from the bottom travels a distance of one wavelength λ size 12{λ} {} farther than the ray from the top. Thus a ray from the center travels a distance λ / 2 size 12{λ/2} {} farther than the one on the left, arrives out of phase, and interferes destructively. A ray from slightly above the center and one from slightly above the bottom will also cancel one another. In fact, each ray from the slit will have another to interfere destructively, and a minimum in intensity will occur at this angle. There will be another minimum at the same angle to the right of the incident direction of the light.

The figure shows four schematics of a ray bundle passing through a single slit. The slit is represented as a gap in a vertical line. In the first schematic, the ray bundle passes horizontally through the slit. This schematic is labeled theta equals zero and bright. The second schematic is labeled dark and shows the ray bundle passing through the slit an angle of roughly fifteen degrees above the horizontal. The path length difference between the top and bottom ray is lambda, and the schematic is labeled sine theta equals lambda over d. The third schematic is labeled bright and shows the ray bundle passing through the slit at an angle of about twenty five degrees above the horizontal. The path length difference between the top and bottom rays is three lambda over two d, and the schematic is labeled sine theta equals three lambda over two d. The final schematic is labeled dark and shows the ray bundle passing through the slit at an angle of about forty degrees above the horizontal. The path length difference between the top and bottom rays is two lambda over d, and the schematic is labeled sine theta equals two lambda over d.
Light passing through a single slit is diffracted in all directions and may interfere constructively or destructively, depending on the angle. The difference in path length for rays from either side of the slit is seen to be D sin θ size 12{D`"sin"`θ} {} .

At the larger angle shown in [link] (c), the path lengths differ by / 2 size 12{3λ/2} {} for rays from the top and bottom of the slit. One ray travels a distance λ size 12{λ} {} different from the ray from the bottom and arrives in phase, interfering constructively. Two rays, each from slightly above those two, will also add constructively. Most rays from the slit will have another to interfere with constructively, and a maximum in intensity will occur at this angle. However, all rays do not interfere constructively for this situation, and so the maximum is not as intense as the central maximum. Finally, in [link] (d), the angle shown is large enough to produce a second minimum. As seen in the figure, the difference in path length for rays from either side of the slit is D sin θ size 12{D`"sin"θ} {} , and we see that a destructive minimum is obtained when this distance is an integral multiple of the wavelength.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Yupparaj english program physics corresponding to thai physics book #3. OpenStax CNX. May 19, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11657/1.1
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