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Figure 1 highlights three major performance categories in terms of bit-error probability P B size 12{P rSub { size 8{B} } } {} versus E b / N 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{b} } /N rSub { size 8{0} } } {}

The leftmost exponentially shaped curve highlights the performance that can be expected when using any nominal modulation scheme in AWGN interference. Observe that at a reasonable E b / N 0 size 12{ {E rSub { size 8{b} } } slash {N rSub { size 8{0} } } } {} level, good performance can be expected.

The middle curve, referred to as the Rayleigh limit , shows the performance degradation resulting from a loss in E b / N 0 size 12{ {E rSub { size 8{b} } } slash {N rSub { size 8{0} } } } {} that is characteristic of flat fading or slow fading when there is no line-of-sight signal component present. The curve is a function of the reciprocal of E b / N 0 size 12{ {E rSub { size 8{b} } } slash {N rSub { size 8{0} } } } {} , so for practical values of E b / N 0 size 12{ {E rSub { size 8{b} } } slash {N rSub { size 8{0} } } } {} , performance will generally be “bad.”

The curve that reaches an irreducible error-rate level, sometimes called an error floor , represents “awful” performance, where the bit-error probability can level off at values nearly equal to 0.5. This shows the severe performance degrading effects that are possible with frequency-selective fading or fast fading.

If the channel introduces signal distortion as a result of fading, the system performance can exhibit an irreducible error rate at a level higher than the desired error rate. In such cases, the only approach available for improving performance is to use some forms of mitigation to remove or reduce the signal distortion.

The mitigation method depends on whether the distortion is caused by frequency-selective fading or fast fading. Once the signal distortion has been mitigated, the P B size 12{P rSub { size 8{B} } } {} versus E b / N 0 size 12{ {E rSub { size 8{b} } } slash {N rSub { size 8{0} } } } {} performance can transition from the “awful” category to the merely “bad” Rayleigh-limit curve.

Next, it is possible to further ameliorate the effects of fading and strive to approach AWGN system performance by using some form of diversity to provide the receiver with a collection of uncorrelated replicas of the signal, and by using a powerful error-correction code.

Figure 2 lists several mitigation techniques for combating the effects of both signal distortion and loss in SNR. The mitigation approaches to be used when designing a system should be considered in two basic steps:

1) choose the type of mitigation to reduce or remove any distortion degradation;

2) choose a diversity type that can best approach AWGN system performance.

Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of digital communications. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10805/1.1
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