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A random sample of 25 statistics students was asked: “Have you smoked a cigarette in the past week?” Six students reported smoking within the past week. Use the “plus-four” method to find a 95% confidence interval for the true proportion of statistics students who smoke.

Solution b

Reminder

Remember that the plus-four method assume an additional four trials: two successes and two failures. You do not need to change the process for calculating the confidence interval; simply update the values of x and n to reflect these additional trials.

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.113, 0.439).

Try it

Out of a random sample of 65 freshmen at State University, 31 students have declared a major. Use the “plus-four” method to find a 96% confidence interval for the true proportion of freshmen at State University who have declared a major.

Solution b

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.355, 0.602).

The Berkman Center for Internet&Society at Harvard recently conducted a study analyzing the privacy management habits of teen internet users. In a group of 50 teens, 13 reported having more than 500 friends on Facebook. Use the “plus four” method to find a 90% confidence interval for the true proportion of teens who would report having more than 500 Facebook friends.

Solution b

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.178, 0.378).

Try it

The Berkman Center Study referenced in [link] talked to teens in smaller focus groups, but also interviewed additional teens over the phone. When the study was complete, 588 teens had answered the question about their Facebook friends with 159 saying that they have more than 500 friends. Use the “plus-four” method to find a 90% confidence interval for the true proportion of teens that would report having more than 500 Facebook friends based on this larger sample. Compare the results to those in [link] .

Solution b

Using a calculator, we get a confidence interval of (0.242, 0.302).

Conclusion: The confidence interval for the larger sample is narrower than the interval from [link] . Larger samples will always yield more precise confidence intervals than smaller samples. The “plus four” method has a greater impact on the smaller sample. It shifts the point estimate from 0.26 (13/50) to 0.278 (15/54). It has a smaller impact on the EPB , changing it from 0.102 to 0.100. In the larger sample, the point estimate undergoes a smaller shift: from 0.270 (159/588) to 0.272 (161/592). It is easy to see that the plus-four method has the greatest impact on smaller samples.

Calculating the sample size n

If researchers desire a specific margin of error, then they can use the error bound formula to calculate the required sample size.

The error bound formula for a population proportion is

  • E B P = ( z α 2 ) ( p q n )
  • Solving for n gives you an equation for the sample size.
  • n = ( z α 2 ) 2 ( p q ) E B P 2

Suppose a mobile phone company wants to determine the current percentage of customers aged 50+ who use text messaging on their cell phones. How many customers aged 50+ should the company survey in order to be 90% confident that the estimated (sample) proportion is within three percentage points of the true population proportion of customers aged 50+ who use text messaging on their cell phones.

From the problem, we know that EBP = 0.03 (3%=0.03) and z α 2 z 0.05 = 1.645 because the confidence level is 90%.

However, in order to find n , we need to know the estimated (sample) proportion p ′. Remember that q ′ = 1 – p ′. But, we do not know p ′ yet. Since we multiply p ′ and q ′ together, we make them both equal to 0.5 because p q ′ = (0.5)(0.5) = 0.25 results in the largest possible product. (Try other products: (0.6)(0.4) = 0.24; (0.3)(0.7) = 0.21; (0.2)(0.8) = 0.16 and so on). The largest possible product gives us the largest n . This gives us a large enough sample so that we can be 90% confident that we are within three percentage points of the true population proportion. To calculate the sample size n , use the formula and make the substitutions.

n = z 2 p q E B P 2 gives n = 1.645 2 ( 0.5 ) ( 0.5 ) 0.03 2 = 751.7

Round the answer to the next higher value. The sample size should be 752 cell phone customers aged 50+ in order to be 90% confident that the estimated (sample) proportion is within three percentage points of the true population proportion of all customers aged 50+ who use text messaging on their cell phones.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Statistics i - math1020 - red river college - version 2015 revision a - draft 2015-10-24. OpenStax CNX. Oct 24, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11891/1.8
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