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As you can learn at (External Link) , the list also includes:

  • Static initializer blocks
  • Instance initializers

Can also contain other class definitions

In this and the next two modules, you will learn that a class definition can also contain the following three kinds of inner classes :

  • Member classes
  • Local classes
  • Anonymous classes

A class can also contain Nested top-level classes and interfaces , which you can learn about at (External Link) .

(Note that it is questionable whether a nested top-level class or interface should be referred to as an inner class, because an object of anested top-level class can exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class. Regardless of whether the term inner class applies, anested top-level class is defined within the definition of another class, so its definition is internal to the definitionof another class.)

This module will be dedicated to an explanation of member classes . Subsequent modules will explain the other two types of inner classes in the above list .

What is a member class ?

A member class is a class that is defined inside the definition of another class, (without the use of the static modifier as is the case with a nested top-level class).

An object of the member class must be internally linked to an object of the enclosing class, (which is not the case with a nested top-level class).

Thus, a member class is truly an inner class. (An object of the member class cannot exist in the absence of an object of the enclosing class.)

What about a member interface ?

Interfaces defined within classes are implicitly static. This means that they are always top-level. There is no such thing as a member interface, a local interface, or an anonymous interface.

Why use member classes ?

Probably the most important benefit of member classes has to do with accessing the other members of enclosing classes. The methods of a member classhave direct access to all the members of the enclosing classes, including private members. Thus the use of member classes can eliminate the requirement toconnect objects together via constructor parameters.

This is particularly useful in those cases where there is no reason for an object of a member class to exist in the absence of an object of the enclosingclass, and where the methods of the object of the member class need access to members of the object of the enclosing class.

Data structures and iterators

For example, there is usually no reason for an Iterator object to exist in the absence of the data-structure object for which it is designed toprovide iterator services. Also, the iterator object usually needs to have ready access to the members of the data-structure object, some or all of which may beprivate. Thus, a class from which an Iterator object can be constructed is a good candidate for inclusion as a member class in the classfrom which the associated data-structure object is instantiated.

Listener objects

Another common use for inner classes is in the definition of classes from which listener objects (which listen for events fired by other objects) are instantiated. (However, it may be more common to use anonymous classes than member classes for this purpose.)

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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