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A selection of recent scholarship on coevolutionary arms races:

Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant.

Hirokazu Toju, BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:273. 2009.

Co-evolutionary arms race between brood parasites and their hosts at the nestling stage.

Manuel Soler, Journal of Avian Biology,3:237-240. 2009.

Intersexual Arms Race? Genital Coevolution in Nephilid Spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae).

Who will win the game?

Australian crab spiders and honeybees are in a coevolutionary arms race . But which is ahead? And how will this dynamic be shifted in the future?

To understand what’s coming next, it is helpful to understand the underlying principals of this “arms race.” This term is used in describing genes that are co-evolving, such as an Australian crab spiders ability to anticipate a honeybee’s preference in flowers and a honeybees ability to identify crab spiders and avoid landing on the flowers they occupy. As these two species develop adaptations, they must then develop counter-adaptations as a result of the other species’ advances. This positive feedback resembles a military arms race. There are numerous examples of these arms races in evolution, and while many have asymmetrical selective pressures, like those acting on the Australian crab spiders and the honeybees, there are symmetrical selection processes as well.

Even though Australian crab spiders are masters of prey deception, making the flowers they sit upon look even more enticing to a bee than less dangerous pollinating sites, scientists hypothesize that they have relinquished the upper hand in the arms race (Heiling and Herberstein, 2004). As more honeybees are able to recognize and combat the Australian crab spiders’ trickery, they will be forced to try new tactics. One anticipated evolutionary response is that the Australian crab spiders will become increasingly less conspicuous to honeybees, which may occur even without becoming less conspicuous to the human eye. There is an increasing body of literature that explain how animals reinvent the common notion of camouflage, that is the their bodies match the colors or patterns of their backgrounds, to a newer definition that includes non-pattern matching body designs that creative disruptive coloration patterns that trick their prey in the same way. Therefore, concealment can occur even if the background is not matched (Stevens et. al, 2006). Or conversely, perhaps the Australian crab spiders might change the way they are ambushing their hymenopteran prey. Instead of pouncing from the petals of a flower, they could hide below the surface, waiting to ambush from their sheltered location. The Australian crab spiders have countless evolutionary paths that they could take, although they must expect the honeybees to be simultaneously fighting back, looking to preserve and advance themselves at the same time and only time will tell how the Australian crab spider responds to these evolutionary pressures.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
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Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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