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Back to America: 3000 to 1500 B.C.

North america

The far north and canada

The Arctic Small Tool tradition continued across northern Canada to Greenland and the Pacific coast Indians continued their salmon fishing, without attempting cultivation. By 1,000 B.C. they were building villages along the Snake, Columbia and Fraser rivers south of the Snake, there were large oval dwellings with floors and a timber frame, usually about twenty-five by thirty feet. (Ref. 209 )

The united states

The Indians of North America originally had lived by hunting game and gathering wild foods, but about 3,000 years ago they began making clay vessels, an innovation that accompanied the appearance of agriculture in many areas. The pottery found in various excavation sites in the United States has a distinctive gritty temper and is often decorated with fabric or cord impressions. One village, called the Baumer site, in southern Illinois, covered more than ten acres and was made up of houses about sixteen feet square. The use of local strains of corn, beans and squash after 1,500 B.C. gave people the surplus of food and time needed to engage in some communal activities. The first signs of mound building appeared in the middle west about 1,000 B.C. as some villages began to bury their dead under low earth mounds. In the southwest the Cochise continued their gradual transition from hunter-gatherers to true farmers. (Ref. 215 , 210 )

Mexico, central america and the caribbean

Village life in Mexico continued to show more advanced societies. In the Oaxaca Valley there were villages with agriculture dominant by 1,300 B.C. Each village contained ten to twenty houses which were single family units made of wattle and daub, all opening into a common plaza. By 1,200 in San Jose Mogote in the same valley, the people began to build large platforms with limed walls and floors. (Ref. 45 , 209 ) Recent excavations at Dzibilchaltun in northern Yucatan indicate that this site, which contained one of the largest of the Mayan cities of the late post-classic period of A.D.600 or later, had been continuously occupied since 1,500 B.C., so that in all probability pre-Mayan or Mayan people lived there with an ever increasing level of civilization for over 2,000 years.

The big story of this period, however, is that of the Olmecs who had developed a civilization in the humid, low-lying, forest region of southern Veracruz and western Tabasco by 1,200 B.C. Most authorities agree (with a few dissenters) that this remarkable society appeared suddenly , without known antecedents. They were the first Meso-Americans to handle large masses of stone in monumental sculptures and they may have been responsible for extending the growth of maize in that area, chiefly by example or leadership, as they were not the basic inhabitants of the region. The latter were ethnically Huastec while the Olmecs were apparently an hereditary ruling class who promoted efficient farming techniques, long distance trade net-works, large temples and public buildings, fine art, an official state religion and social stratification. The question of pre-Columbian contacts with America has been brought up time and again, particularly regarding this advanced, suddenly appearing Olmec civilization, but the nature and method of such contact and whether or not it occurred at all, continues to be debated.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
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Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Sanket Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
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Sravani Reply
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preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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