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A bag containing C size 12{0°C} {} ice is much more effective in absorbing energy than one containing the same amount of C water.

  1. How much heat transfer is necessary to raise the temperature of 0.800 kg of water from C size 12{0°C} {} to 30 . C?
  2. How much heat transfer is required to first melt 0.800 kg of C ice and then raise its temperature?
  3. Explain how your answer supports the contention that the ice is more effective.

(a) How much heat transfer is required to raise the temperature of a 0.750-kg aluminum pot containing 2.50 kg of water from 30 . C to the boiling point and then boil away 0.750 kg of water? (b) How long does this take if the rate of heat transfer is 500 W watt = 1  joule/second  ( 1 W = 1 J/s ) ?

(a) 591 kcal

(b) 4 . 94 × 10 3 s size 12{4 "." "94" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } `s} {}

The formation of condensation on a glass of ice water causes the ice to melt faster than it would otherwise. If 8.00 g of condensation forms on a glass containing both water and 200 g of ice, how many grams of the ice will melt as a result? Assume no other heat transfer occurs.

On a trip, you notice that a 3.50-kg bag of ice lasts an average of one day in your cooler. What is the average power in watts entering the ice if it starts at C size 12{0°C} {} and completely melts to C water in exactly one day 1 watt = 1 joule/second  ( 1 W = 1 J/s ) ?

13.5 W

On a certain dry sunny day, a swimming pool’s temperature would rise by 1 . 50º C size 12{1 "." "50"°C} {} if not for evaporation. What fraction of the water must evaporate to carry away precisely enough energy to keep the temperature constant?

(a) How much heat transfer is necessary to raise the temperature of a 0.200-kg piece of ice from 20. C to 130º C , including the energy needed for phase changes?
(b) How much time is required for each stage, assuming a constant 20.0 kJ/s rate of heat transfer?
(c) Make a graph of temperature versus time for this process.

(a) 148 kcal

(b) 0.418 s, 3.34 s, 4.19 s, 22.6 s, 0.456 s

In 1986, a gargantuan iceberg broke away from the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. It was approximately a rectangle 160 km long, 40.0 km wide, and 250 m thick.

(a) What is the mass of this iceberg, given that the density of ice is 917  kg/m 3 size 12{"917"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} ?

(b) How much heat transfer (in joules) is needed to melt it?

(c) How many years would it take sunlight alone to melt ice this thick, if the ice absorbs an average of 100  W/m 2 size 12{"100"`"W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , 12.00 h per day?

How many grams of coffee must evaporate from 350 g of coffee in a 100-g glass cup to cool the coffee from 95 . C to 45 . C ? You may assume the coffee has the same thermal properties as water and that the average heat of vaporization is 2340 kJ/kg (560 cal/g). (You may neglect the change in mass of the coffee as it cools, which will give you an answer that is slightly larger than correct.)

33.0 g

(a) It is difficult to extinguish a fire on a crude oil tanker, because each liter of crude oil releases 2 . 80 × 10 7 J size 12{2 "." "80" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } `J} {} of energy when burned. To illustrate this difficulty, calculate the number of liters of water that must be expended to absorb the energy released by burning 1.00 L of crude oil, if the water has its temperature raised from 20 . C to 100º C , it boils, and the resulting steam is raised to 300º C size 12{"300"`°C} {} . (b) Discuss additional complications caused by the fact that crude oil has a smaller density than water.

(a) 9.67 L

(b) Crude oil is less dense than water, so it floats on top of the water, thereby exposing it to the oxygen in the air, which it uses to burn. Also, if the water is under the oil, it is less efficient in absorbing the heat generated by the oil.

The energy released from condensation in thunderstorms can be very large. Calculate the energy released into the atmosphere for a small storm of radius 1 km, assuming that 1.0 cm of rain is precipitated uniformly over this area.

To help prevent frost damage, 4.00 kg of C size 12{0°C} {} water is sprayed onto a fruit tree.

(a) How much heat transfer occurs as the water freezes?

(b) How much would the temperature of the 200-kg tree decrease if this amount of heat transferred from the tree? Take the specific heat to be 3 .35 kJ/kg ⋅º C , and assume that no phase change occurs.

a) 319 kcal

b) 2 . 00º C size 12{2 "." "00"°C} {}

A 0.250-kg aluminum bowl holding 0.800 kg of soup at 25 . C size 12{"25" "." 0°C} {} is placed in a freezer. What is the final temperature if 377 kJ of energy is transferred from the bowl and soup, assuming the soup’s thermal properties are the same as that of water? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in Problem-Solving Strategies for the Effects of Heat Transfer.

A 0.0500-kg ice cube at 30 . C size 12{ - "30" "." 0°C} {} is placed in 0.400 kg of 35 . C size 12{"35" "." 0°C} {} water in a very well-insulated container. What is the final temperature?

20.6º C size 12{"20" "." 6°C} {}

If you pour 0.0100 kg of 20 . C size 12{"20" "." 0°C} {} water onto a 1.20-kg block of ice (which is initially at 15 . C ), what is the final temperature? You may assume that the water cools so rapidly that effects of the surroundings are negligible.

Indigenous people sometimes cook in watertight baskets by placing hot rocks into water to bring it to a boil. What mass of 500º C size 12{"500"`°C} {} rock must be placed in 4.00 kg of 15 . C size 12{"15" "." 0°C} {} water to bring its temperature to 100º C , if 0.0250 kg of water escapes as vapor from the initial sizzle? You may neglect the effects of the surroundings and take the average specific heat of the rocks to be that of granite.

4.38 kg

In some countries, liquid nitrogen is used on dairy trucks instead of mechanical refrigerators. A 3.00-hour delivery trip requires 200 L of liquid nitrogen, which has a density of 808  kg/m 3 size 12{"808"`"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} .

(a) Calculate the heat transfer necessary to evaporate this amount of liquid nitrogen and raise its temperature to 3 . 00º C . (Use c p and assume it is constant over the temperature range.) This value is the amount of cooling the liquid nitrogen supplies.

(b) What is this heat transfer rate in kilowatt-hours?

(c) Compare the amount of cooling obtained from melting an identical mass of C ice with that from evaporating the liquid nitrogen.

(a) 1 . 57 × 10 4 kcal size 12{1 "." "57" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"kcal"} {}

(b) 18 .3 kW h size 12{"18" "." 3`"kW" cdot h} {}

(c) 1 . 29 × 10 4 kcal size 12{1 "." "29" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"kcal"} {}

Some gun fanciers make their own bullets, which involves melting and casting the lead slugs. How much heat transfer is needed to raise the temperature and melt 0.500 kg of lead, starting from 25 . C ?

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of physics. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11738/1.5
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