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The fu-ping system of military conscription, started by the Wei Dynasty (see page 423), evolved to the T'ang system of elite, career soldiers who also performed agricultural work to support themselves, as far as possible. The T'ang had more than 600 garrisons clustered primarily around Ch'ang-an. Their statuary punishments came under five categories: death by strangulation or bisection; exile from home (up to 1,000 English miles); hard labor for up to 3 years; beating with heavy bamboo rods up to 100 blows. Commutation to fines was often possible for people of wealth. (Ref. 125 , 101 )

In the period of their foreign excursions in the 660s Chinese armies intervened in India and Central Asia, re-occupying the Tarim Basin, Dzungaria and Afghanistan and they briefly sat up protectorates in Tukharistan, Sogdiana, Ferghana and even eastern Persia. Yunnan came under Chinese suzertainty at the end of the century and a portion of Manchuria, previously under Korean control, was returned to China as Empress Wu intervened in a Korean civil war. After three centuries of importance the use of the armored, great Persian horses in cavalry units came to an end in China. If a cross-bowman could knock even a heavily armored man off his horse, it made no sense to have these expensive units. (Ref. 101 , 279 )

Sun Szu-miao wrote a 30 volume summary of medical knowledge gained up to that time and then headed a committee which produced a 50 volume treatise on pathology. It was in this century that examinations were first required to qualify as a physician, a process that preceded the first licensing program in the West by some 4 centuries. It was about this time that women of proper family started to bind their feet (i.e. the mothers bound the infants' feet) producing a severely deformed, cavus foot. This greatly restricted their activities and allowed their legs and mons to accumulate much fat, thus supposedly making them very attractive sexually to the Chinese men. The custom was continued for a thousand years.


As the century opened, the child prodigy, Prince Shotoku Taishi, had formed groups of scholars who wrote the first histories, geographies, grammars and legal codes of Japan and who drew up orderly plans for a census, land surveys, equitable conscription and taxation. He also worked out a compromise between Buddhism and Shintoism that could be tolerated. At his death in 621, the Shinto princes and the Buddhist princes of the imperial family actually came to a small war, with the Nakatomi family eventually winning power to put Crown Prince Tenji on the throne. He carried out Shotoku's ideas which were known as the great "Taika Reforms". (Ref. 12 )

Despite these civilizing factors, within a generation of Prince Taishi's death a violent crisis appeared which included a terrible famine with thousands dying. Along with this developed a strange new religion called "Tokoyonomushi" in which devotees worshiped a large worm, drank sake and danced in the streets, giving away money. (Ref. 222 ) A palace revolution produced such a marked change that native historians refer to it as the "Great Reform" of 645. The Japanese government was reconstructed into an autocratic, imperial power. The sovereign was elevated from the leadership of the principal clan to paramount authority over every official in Japan, thus creating a closely-knit monarchical state. The emperors were allowed as many wives or consorts as desired and the heir to the throne was picked from any of his off-spring. The early emperors were devout Buddhists but Shintoism was never completely abandoned. Japan then had an embassy in China and Chinese civilization continued to be imported via Japanese students, monks and physicians studying in China. (Ref. 125 )

In 670 when the old Nakatomi reformer who had put Tenji on the throne was dying, the emperor sent a pregnant concubine of his to comfort the old man. When the boy child was born the emperor gave him the name Fujiwara, and it was this boy's descendants, the Fujiwara clan, which took the place of the Nakotomis as the emperor's most intimate counselors for the next 1,275 years.


China tried to conquer Korea again in 612 and failed but did essentially accomplish this in 668 as the Chou Empress Wu intervened in a Korean civil war and helped Silla to forge a united Korea while holding a few areas under Chinese suzertainty. As Koguryo was destroyed China also regained some Manchurian territory formerly dominated by these Koreans. Within two years Silla had pushed the Chinese out of Paekche and started the period which was the acme of Silla power and culture. Buddhism and its art flourished, particularly at the capital near the modern Kyongju. Skilled metal work was one of the special accomplishments. Additional Notes

Southeast asia

It is as difficult to record and explain the history of southeast Asia as it is the Balkan peninsula of Europe, in that in both the names and borders of many small countries have changed almost as rapidly as the years. In this 7th century there was a Cambodia where small Hindu temples were being built at Angkor Borei. A Sanskrit inscription in Cambodia of A.D. 604 shows a decimal position, suggesting an advanced knowledge of mathematics. The Funan Empire continued under control of Chenla and in Pyu (now Burma) a Buddhist capital of Srikshetra (now Hinawza) was founded some 200 miles north of present Rangoon, in 638. In Thailand the earliest kingdom was of a Mon people from lower Burma, who settled in the valley of River Menan and established a capital at Dvaravati, from which comes the name of their kingdom and their art. Under Isaravarman (611-635) the Khmers extended westward and developed great artistic and hydraulic engineering projects. (Ref. 8 , 175 , 19 , 45 )

In the Indonesian archipelago, the Empire of Srivijaya, based in Sumatra, dominated the straits of Sunda and Malacca and taxed the commerce in those waters for the next six centuries. Palembang, in southeast Sumatra, besides being the capital of that maritime empire, was a center of Sanskrit Culture. (Ref. 8 )

It was in A.D. 688 that Silla absorbed Paekche and Koguryo. Their capital city had 178,936 households with 1,000,000 people and was one of the world's greatest cities of the time. Buildings were roofed with tile and heated by charcoal. The burial burrows of that period are great archeology treasures. (Ref. 305 )

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Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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