<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Box 1: bite recruitment in polybia wasps

Colonies of the paper wasp Polybia are much smaller than most honeybee colonies. They also have a distinctly unique method of forager recruiting completely dissimilar to the honeybee waggle dance. The paper wasp’s approach to recruiting foragers to food sources is much more aggressive. As Sean O’Donnell shows in his study, the wasp recruiters bite one another, a signal that was used by scouts to recruit other wasps to begin foraging. He found that bitten wasps have an increased likelihood to initiate foraging. In order to test his hypothesis, he removed active foragers from nest sites and found that in relation to the control sites, foraging greatly decreased throughout the following days. This, he noted caused a marked decrease in food gathering and as he had predicted a drastic increase in the rate at which non-foraging worker wasps were bitten. Those that were bitten often began a foraging role soon after. It is important to note that just as the honeybees cope with inaccuracy of waggle dances by deferring to prior knowledge on food sources, some paper wasps initiated foraging even without being bitten (O’Donnell 2006).

Olfactory communication proves to be even more advanced in honeybees and also plays an important role in the recruitment process. In addition to scents gathered from the environment, Thom et al. in their experiments proved that the returning recruiters secrete as many as four complex pheromones while engaging in the waggle dance. They showed, by injecting one such chemical into a test population, that it increased the number of recruits that left the hive after the waggle-dance. As many as four distinct chemical signals, produced only by waggle-dancers during their runs have been shown to increase the number of recruits that begin foraging (Thom et al. 2007). Von Frisch’s experiments also showed that a nectar scent carried by a forager can be traced by a dance-observer to a particular flower, thereby increasing the accuracy of the recruitment process (Von Frisch 1974).

The variability of waggle-dance communication

The effectiveness of the waggle-dance is highly variable within individual honeybee colonies. Colonies with eggs fertilized by multiple males (multiple-patriline) have been shown to increase foraging rates, larger stores of food and higher individual health compared to single-patriline colonies (Mattila et al. 2008). That is to say, queens that breed with more than one male increase the productivity of their nest. It is strange that decreased relatedness within the brood would in fact increase productivity, but the reasons are clear. What Mattila and her colleagues discovered was that in a genetically diverse population, worker efficiency was improved by the genetic variability of communicational behaviors. They showed that multiple-patriline colonies had an increase in foraging rates of 27-78% and engaged in 36% percent more waggle dances daily than genetically uniform colonies (Matilla et al. 2008). Not only does genetic diversity increase resistance to diseases in the hive, but it also allows for varying degrees of specificity in waggle dances. Decreased relatedness creates an increased need for more highly specific communication, as well as an increased variability in the waggle-dance. This increased variety of dance, according to the Tuned Error Hypothesis, may also lead to a larger search area. This is not necessarily a negative outcome. It occurs also when workers witness only a limited number of incomplete waggle runs and perhaps could allow bees, even at a short range, to find unexplored food resources next to the one being indicated by the dancer. Since the dances that indicate more remote locations are more precise and last longer, the search area at both close and far distances should theoretically be comparable (Tanner et al. 2008).

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask