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An explanation of the basic problems in analyzing speech patterns.

The questions

The issues with speech recognition in general are complex and wide-ranging. One of the main problems lies in thecomplexity of the actual speech signal itself. In such signals, as in signal 1 below, it is very difficult to interpret the large amounts of information presented to a system.

The word diablo, with DC offset removed.

One of the more evident problems is the jaggedness of the signal. A natural speech signal is not smooth;instead, it fluctuates almost nonstop throughout the signal. Another naturally occurring property of speech patterns is thefluctuation in the volume, or amplitude, of the signal. Different people emphasize different syllables, letters, or words indifferent ways. If two signals have different volume levels, they are very difficult to compare. Speech signals also have a verylarge number of peaks in a short period of time. These peaks correspond to the syllables in the words being spoken. Comparingtwo signals becomes much more difficult as the number of peaks increases, as it is easy for results to be skewed by a higher peak,and, consequently, for those results to be interpreted incorrectly. The speed at which the input single is given is also an importantissue. A user saying their name at a speed different from the speed at which they normally speak can change results, as two versions ofthe same pattern are compared. The problem is, the time over which they are spoken is different, and must be accounted for. Finally,when examining the signal in terms of speech verification, another individual may attempt to mimic the speech of another person. Ifthe speaker has a good imitation, it would be possible for the speaker to be accepted by the system.

The answers

How do you deal with the jaggedness of the signal and the noise introduced to the signal through theenvironment?

  • In order to actually account for this, you have to pass all the signals through a smoothing filter. The filter will accomplishtwo tasks: first, it gets rid of any excess noise. Second, it gets rid of the high frequency jaggedness in the signal and leavesbehind simply the magnitude of the signal. As a result, you get a clean signal that is fairly easy to process.

How do you account for the different volumes of speakers?

  • The signals must all be normalized to the same volume before they are examined. Each signal is normalized about zero such thatall of the signals will have the same relative maximum and minimum values, and so that comparing two signals with different volumes isthe same as comparing the same two signals if they were to have the same volume.

How do you examine each of the individual peaks?

  • Just after the signal is smoothed by the filter, we use an envelope function to detect all of the peaks of the signal. Bydoing this, we can be sure that, if a signal passes a certain threshold amount, it will be examined and compared with thecorresponding signal in the database. The analysis will not be an analysis of the entire signal, but rather a formant analysis. Theindividual formant, or vowel sounds, in the signal will be examined and those will be used to verify the speaker.

How does the system handle varying speeds of inputs?

  • Both the formant analysis and the envelope functions will be used to help with varying input speeds. The envelope of the peakwill determine which vowels are available, and the actual formants themselves will be relatively unchanged. It is difficult to handlevery high speed voices, but most other voices can be handled effectively.

How can you account for imitating speech patterns?

  • Once again, the formants of the individual signals are analyzed to actually determine if a speaker is who he claims to be.In most cases, the imitating formants do not match up closely with those stored in the database, and the imitator will be denied bythe system.

Questions & Answers

What is deflation
Aluko Reply
Enumerate emotional intelligence to a manager
Chinonso Reply
What about Sydney Alexander's Absorption approach in international trade?
Vibhas Reply
I need help in inflation graphs
Brandon Reply
Select inflation type, Demand pull, cost pull or anticipation 1- Select the set of data you intend on graphing i.e inflation rate of 2017, location (particular country) 2 - Select the type of measurement tool that best allows you to input the inflation data, Consumer price index is the most accurate
Jama
this is to make sure you have all the correct information, Also use should know 1- Cost pull is Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply AD - AS graphed 2- Demans pull is Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand AS - AD graphed
Jama
what is production
Imoro Reply
what is a monopolistic competition?
moniman Reply
Enumerate emotional intelligence to a manager
Chinonso
Enumerate emotional intelligence to a manager
Chinonso
who is barter
Tening Reply
exchange goods each other
Seven
what is economic
Bah
is the use of scares resources to satisfy our unlimited needs and wants
Desiderius
how many kinds of utility functions?
Sadaf
What is partnership?
Jackson
the legal association of two or more people as co-owners of a business for profit.
harmony
Would you expect the kinked demand curve to be more extreme (like a right angle) or less extreme (like a normal demand curve) if each firm in the cartel produces a near-identical product like OPEC and petroleum? What if each firm produces a somewhat different product?
James Reply
no
Sadaf
what is supply
Mizta Reply
what is opportunity cost
Mizta
The opportunity gained interms of opportunity lost is known as opportunity cost Or The second best alternative use of resources
Mir
forgone alternative: like forgoing Something our of two to buy one
Tam-Waribo
what is macro economic s
Addo Reply
macroeconomics is the study of economic as a whole level.
Gafar
meaning of positive science
Sumit Reply
positive science it is focused on facts and cause and effect and behavioural relationship and include developmental testing in economic theoreis.
Gafar
what is inflation
Sama Reply
inflation is the general price increase of goods and services in an economy.
tesfie
Inflation is the persistent rise in the general price level
T-Max
inflation is characterized by increase in the general price of goods and services. when there is too much money in circulation. increase in demand of goods pursuing fewer goods. when purchasing power of money decreases .
Ejikeme
inflation is the persistent rise general price level
Habeeb
inflation is the persistent increase in price
Machall
hi
Rafiu
yes
boston
hi
Ayaan
how are you
Ayaan
increase in the general level of price...
sade
what is deflation
Sele
is the gradual decrease of currency exchange in a country.
Gafar
why ecnomics important ? give answer plz
Saifullah
Because is a field of science study that reflects on our day to day activities with human behavior.
ANSU
why economic is a science
Imoro
Economics is referred to as a social science not a pure science. It's regarded as a social science because it makes use of the scientific method to solve problems. The scientific method refers to observation, asking questions, forming hypothesis, experimentation etc
Nkechi
Economics is a social science because it study human behavior how he relates with his daily activities with the available limited resources to satisfy his wants.
Ojo
what are the factors affecting the demand
Mohammed
yeah it uses the scientific method to study human behaviour.
Nkechi
inflation referes to the persistant increase in the general price of goods and services over a given period of time say a year.
Abdul
factors affacting Demand of good and services are 1.price of a commodity in question 2.price of related commodity 3.Income of a consumer 4.Population 5.tast and prefereance 6.Season or weather condition
Abdul
what is difference between perfect and non perfect market.
Saheed
what the difference between Trade off and Opportunity Cost?
Elzevery
answer
Golda
In trade off, you increase the amount of something by decreasing the amount of something else. For example, you use 2 hours to study and 2 hours for leisure. if you increase study hour by 1 more hour, i.e 3 hours, leisure time will decrease by 1 hour, i.e 1 hour.
harmony
In all, you would have traded off 1 hour of leisure time for 3 hours of study time. But in opportunity cost, you let something go in order to obtain something else entirely.
harmony
thanks for your idea
Elzevery
please i want help on thid question given P=$10 And TC=120+4Q2 1.find the profit maximizing level of price and quantity. 2.what will be the total profit?
Shemels
please how is substitutional effect affecting demand
Acha
if a price of a particular commodity is high people demand less ,they rather go for less one
FIDELIS
what is account
Wasif
account is an arrangement between a customer and a bank that allows the customer to play in and take out money (bank account)
Johnny
pay, not play sorry
Johnny
four effects of inflation in an economy
Acha
oil
TsendeTheRipper
decreases living standards .. decreases purchasing power.. Decreases internation competition . increases the cost of borrowing
MansoorAfghan
Inflation refers to persistent increase in the general prices of commodities.
Aluko
he asked for effects
MansoorAfghan
Low standard of living, prices of commodities will be high, devaluation of currency in the economy
Aluko
Debtors gain while creditors loses
Ojo
Hi every one
Ani
Hello
Ansah
hi
kelvin
hi
Seven
Hii
raushan
how are you all
Seven
Fin and you
raushan
me also
Seven
Whare do you live
raushan
general tendency of rising price and continuous... .
Auqib
any one among you is going to aaper in net exam day after tomorrow
Auqib
reply?
Auqib
pakistan
Seven
Oo Pakistan I am India
raushan
really from Pakistan
Auqib
ok
Seven
You noo hindi
raushan
no
Seven
hi
ken
different between demand and quantity demand
Farhan Reply
No difference
MansoorAfghan
demand is the overall demand for it
MansoorAfghan
actually theres no difference
MansoorAfghan
quantity demanded is used in Equilibrium of d and s
MansoorAfghan
for evrything else u use deman
MansoorAfghan
the difference of it is that when demand simply denotes the willingness and a person's ability to purchase. And as against quantity demand represent the amount of an economic good or services desire by a consumer at a fixed price .☺
Gafar
how to calculate inflation
Richard Reply
Explain the factors that have led to high quantity demanded
Ogwang Reply
price of the product increase of price substitute product as people shift to cheap one
Black
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2006. OpenStax CNX. Sep 27, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10462/1.2
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