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DePietro, Ferdig, Black, and Preston (2008) acknowledged that there was not a lot of information about best practices for teaching in K-12 online settings. The principles that were identified were similar to face-to-face instruction. Several organizations published documents for teaching online courses. Although these documents addressed course design, they failed to address the skill set required to teach online. The skills needed for providing students with quality online learning experiences included coordination with pedagogy, technology and content expertise (Kurtz, Beaudoin,&Sagee, 2004; Olson&Wisher, 2002; Russell, 2004; Savery, 2005). The skills necessary to successfully teach online often were beyond those required in a traditional classroom.

Many online program professional development requirements focused on helping teachers understand how to motivate individual learners, enhance student interaction and understanding without visual cues, tailor instruction to particular learning styles, and develop or modify interactive lessons to meet student needs. Dawley, Rice, and Hicks (2010) reported that the United States was falling behind other countries in providing preservice training for online teaching. DePietro et al. (2008) suggested that with valid and reliable feedback regarding best practices, a framework for an online education certification was needed to promote a consistent model for exemplary instruction in K-12 online teaching and learning.

Web 2.0 tools

The web was shaped by Web 2.0 into communities across the globe that enabled anyone to join and allowed unlimited participation (Parker&Chao, 2007; Tapscott&Williams, 2008). The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009) reported the technological environment within which modern education operated was becoming increasingly complex; offering new possibilities, but also giving rise to challenges. Furthermore, a continual evolution of technologies and how they were used since the introduction of the Internet was indicated. Web 2.0 tools, virtual worlds, simulations, and mobile technologies continued this trend of co‐evolution. An understanding was beginning to develop of how the trajectory of this co‐evolution would occur. Additionally, data indicated that more than one-fifth of US higher education students were actively contributing content to blogs, wikis, photo or video websites and 18% contributed regularly to at least three of these (OECD, 2009).

According to Mills (2007), this relatively new paradigm, Web 2.0, enabled web-based applications that routinely provided communication, contribution, and communication capabilities. These social networking sites, blogs, wikis and other media and interactive web conferencing sites enabled users to create and share information. Moreover, in order to properly discuss Web 2.0 tools and how they had altered the learning landscape, it was helpful to understand the role of Web 1.0. Hastings, CEO of Netflix, described Web 1.0 as dial-up with approximately 50K average bandwidth. Web 2.0 averaged 1 megabit of bandwidth, while he predicted that Web 3.0 would be 10 megabits of bandwidth, which would be the full video web, and that would feel like Web 3.0 (Web 1.0, 2008). Flew (2008) identified the differences in Web 1.0 versus Web 2.0 as a move from personal websites to blogs and blog site aggregation, from publishing to participation, from web content as the outcome of large up-front investment to an ongoing and interactive process, and from content management systems to links based on tagging (folksonomy) (Web 1.0, 2008). O’Reily (2005) coined the term Web 2.0 at the first Web 2.0 conference in 2004. He described Web 2.0 as a business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
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