# 5.8 Torque on a current loop: motors and meters

 Page 1 / 4
• Describe how motors and meters work in terms of torque on a current loop.
• Calculate the torque on a current-carrying loop in a magnetic field.

Motors are the most common application of magnetic force on current-carrying wires. Motors have loops of wire in a magnetic field. When current is passed through the loops, the magnetic field exerts torque on the loops, which rotates a shaft. Electrical energy is converted to mechanical work in the process. (See [link] .)

Let us examine the force on each segment of the loop in [link] to find the torques produced about the axis of the vertical shaft. (This will lead to a useful equation for the torque on the loop.) We take the magnetic field to be uniform over the rectangular loop, which has width $w$ and height $l$ . First, we note that the forces on the top and bottom segments are vertical and, therefore, parallel to the shaft, producing no torque. Those vertical forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, so that they also produce no net force on the loop. [link] shows views of the loop from above. Torque is defined as $\tau =\text{rF}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta$ , where $F$ is the force, $r$ is the distance from the pivot that the force is applied, and $\theta$ is the angle between $r$ and $F$ . As seen in [link] (a), right hand rule 1 gives the forces on the sides to be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, so that the net force is again zero. However, each force produces a clockwise torque. Since $r=w/2$ , the torque on each vertical segment is $\left(w/2\right)F\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta$ , and the two add to give a total torque.

$\tau =\frac{w}{2}F\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta +\frac{w}{2}F\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta =\text{wF}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta$

Now, each vertical segment has a length $l$ that is perpendicular to $B$ , so that the force on each is $F=\text{IlB}$ . Entering $F$ into the expression for torque yields

$\tau =\text{wIlB}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta .$

If we have a multiple loop of $N$ turns, we get $N$ times the torque of one loop. Finally, note that the area of the loop is $A=\text{wl}$ ; the expression for the torque becomes

$\tau =\text{NIAB}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta .$

This is the torque on a current-carrying loop in a uniform magnetic field. This equation can be shown to be valid for a loop of any shape. The loop carries a current $I$ , has $N$ turns, each of area $A$ , and the perpendicular to the loop makes an angle $\theta$ with the field $B$ . The net force on the loop is zero.

## Calculating torque on a current-carrying loop in a strong magnetic field

Find the maximum torque on a 100-turn square loop of a wire of 10.0 cm on a side that carries 15.0 A of current in a 2.00-T field.

Strategy

Torque on the loop can be found using $\tau =\text{NIAB}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta$ . Maximum torque occurs when $\theta =\text{90º}$ and $\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta =1$ .

Solution

For $\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\theta =1$ , the maximum torque is

${\tau }_{\text{max}}=\text{NIAB}.$

Entering known values yields

$\begin{array}{lll}{\tau }_{\text{max}}& =& \left(\text{100}\right)\left(\text{15.0 A}\right)\left(\text{0.100}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{2}\right)\left(2\text{.}\text{00 T}\right)\\ & =& \text{30.0 N}\cdot m.\end{array}$

Discussion

This torque is large enough to be useful in a motor.

what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!